Indian Journal of Nephrology About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback | Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Current Issue | Archives| Ahead of print | Search |Instructions |  Editorial Board  

Users Online:510

Official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology
 ~  Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Search Pubmed for
 ~  Search in Google Scholar for
 ~  Article in PDF (274 KB)
 ~  Citation Manager
 ~  Access Statistics
 ~  Reader Comments
 ~  Email Alert *
 ~  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded130    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal


  Table of Contents  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 484-485

Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in an underserved rural community

1 Organ Transplant, Walter Reed Army Medical Center and George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
2 Department of Medicine, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, USA
3 Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
4 Center for the Study of Health Disparities, Texas A and M University, College Station, USA

Date of Web Publication14-Jan-2013

Correspondence Address:
R M Jindal
Department of Transplantation, Walter Reed AMC, Georgia Av, Washington, DC
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.106049

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Jindal R M, Salifu M O, Patel T G, Misra R. Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in an underserved rural community. Indian J Nephrol 2012;22:484-5

How to cite this URL:
Jindal R M, Salifu M O, Patel T G, Misra R. Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in an underserved rural community. Indian J Nephrol [serial online] 2012 [cited 2022 Nov 26];22:484-5. Available from:


There is a paucity of data on the incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India which is hampering the development of public policy and allocation of resources for the treatment of renal replacement therapy.

We report the results of our study that carried out a cross-sectional population survey in a village (Karakhadi, Gujarat) comprising 1889 adult persons of which 1681 participated (89% response rate); most of them are below the poverty line of less than US$ 2/day. Vital data was obtained on all participants, however, laboratory data was limited to persons who were known to be diabetic (n = 118). We collected samples for CBC, FBS, A1c, creatinine, urine albumin, and serum lipids. We also calculated the GFR by MDRD formula.

The crude prevalence of diabetes was 7.2% (all type 2); diagnosed hypertension in 4.3% and undiagnosed hypertension was 21.8%. The point prevalence of diabetic nephropathy defined as micro-albumin >30 was 13.6% (14 patients in CKD 1, and one each in CKD stages two and three respectively). Subjects who had micro-albumin <30 (86.4%) were 102. Further, in these diabetics, total cholesterol >200 mg/dl was found in 14%, triglyceride level >150 mg/dl was found in 25%, creatinine >1.1 mg/dl was found in 6%, and Hb A1c >6.5% was found in 45%. Patients with A1c >6.5% had statistically higher levels of micro-albumin ( P = 0.001), total cholesterol ( P = 0.053), triglycerides ( P = 0.050), and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.045) suggesting metabolic complications of diabetes [Table 1].
Table 1: Study of variables, means, and SD of the cohort

Click here to view

Modi and Jha [1] found that 346 new end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients were diagnosed during the study period from a population base of approximately 0.5 million; diabetic nephropathy was the commonest (44%) cause of ESRD. There are significant differences in the study reported by Modi and Jha. [1],[2] Their population included the large urban area of Bhopal with a relatively sophisticated level of tertiary medical services. Our cohort is a rural part of India with the majority of people below the poverty level without primary or tertiary medical services. Furthermore, they report on the entire population of approximately 0.5 million, whereas our study is limited to patients with known type 2 diabetes. Nonetheless, our findings are novel as we found that most of the patients with diabetic nephropathy were CKD 1, suggesting a relatively benign disease process.

It is noteworthy that despite the lack of manifestations of moderate or severe proteinuria, diabetics with A1c >6.5 had metabolic complications of diabetes. In this regards, our findings are in line with that of Raman et al .[3] group which carried out a population-based cross-sectional survey on 1414 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus in South India. They found an incidence of metabolic syndrome to be 73.3%. In subjects with diabetes mellitus, without and with metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of nephropathy was 20.5% and 18.0% respectively.

These patients might benefit from ACE inhibitors, aggressive control of diabetes, and hypertension. We speculate that the low prevalence of diabetic nephropathy could be vegetarian diet; however, genetics or environmental factors may also be implicated. Another explanation could be that patients in CKD 5 are simply dying due to lack of renal replacement therapy and are not accounted for in this cohort. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are indicated to study the incidence and prevalence of CKD in emerging countries such as India where there are vast disparities in access to health services between urban and rural areas.

  References Top

1.Modi G, Jha V. Incidence of ESRD in India. Kidney Int 2011;79:573.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Modi GK, Jha V. The incidence of end-stage renal disease in India: A population-based study. Kidney Int 2006;70:2131-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Raman R, Gupta A, Pal SS, Ganesan S, Venkatesh K, Kulothungan V, Sharma T. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its influence on microvascular complications in the Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study (SN-DREAMS, report 14). Diabetol Metab Syndr 2010;2:67.  Back to cited text no. 3


  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Prevalence of Vascular Complications Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in a Rural Health Center in South India
Akila Govindarajan Venguidesvarane, Aliya Jasmine, Samya Varadarajan, Vanishree Shriraam, Anitha Rani Muthuthandavan, Vanitha Durai, Gayathri Thiruvengadam, Shriraam Mahadevan
Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020; 11: 2150132720
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article


Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07