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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 427-433

Snakebite mediated acute kidney injury, prognostic predictors, oxidative and carbonyl stress: A prospective study

1 Department of Nephrology, NRS Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Physiology, Ananda Mohan College, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, NRS Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
P Mukhopadhyay
Department of Nephrology, 138, AJC Bose Road, Kolkata - 700 014, West Bengal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.175987

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Snake bite is an occupational hazard in India and important preventable cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study was done to estimate the magnitude of snakebite-induced AKI (SAKI) who required renal replacement therapy, prognostic predictors, and final outcome, and to measure the oxidative and carbonyl stress (CS) level in SAKI patient who underwent hemodialysis (HD). All SAKI patients dialyzed between April 2010 and July 2011 in NRS Medical College were included. Demographical, clinical, and biochemical data were analyzed, and patients are followed to discharge or death. Oxidative and CS markers (advanced oxidation protein product [AOPP], advanced glycation end product, pentosidine, dityrosine, thioberbituric acid reactive substance, and methylglyoxal [MG]) were measured in 48 SAKI patient requiring HD. About 155 SAKI patients (M: F 2.2:1) received HD. Of them. The age was 36.2 (range 4-74) years. The most common site of the bite was lower limb (88.7%). Oliguria and bleeding manifestation were the common presentation. Hypotension was found in 52 (33.5%) cases, cellulitis and inflammation were found in about 63%. Mean creatinine was 4.56 ± 0.24 mg/dl. About 42 (27.1%) had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). 36 (78.2%) had cellulites, 24 (52.2%) had hypotension or shock at initial presentation (P < 0.05), bleeding manifestation was found in 37 (80.4%), and 22 (47.8%) had DIC (P < 0.05). Forty-six (29.7%) patient died. DIC and hypotension/shock at initial presentation came out as an independent predictor of death. Among all markers measured for oxidative and CS (n = 48) AOPP and MG came out as an independent predictor (P < 0.05) of adverse outcome. Hypotension, DIC, AOPP, and MG were a poor prognostic marker in SAKI patients requiring dialysis.


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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07