Indian Journal of Nephrology About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback | Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Current Issue | Archives| Ahead of print | Search |Instructions |  Editorial Board  

Users Online:1058

Official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology
 ~  Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Article in PDF (316 KB)
 ~  Citation Manager
 ~  Access Statistics
 ~  Reader Comments
 ~  Email Alert *
 ~  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded182    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


  Table of Contents  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 29-30

Technical aspects of vaccine administration

Date of Web Publication27-Apr-2016

Correspondence Address:
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
. Technical aspects of vaccine administration. Indian J Nephrol 2016;26, Suppl S1:29-30

How to cite this URL:
. Technical aspects of vaccine administration. Indian J Nephrol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Dec 5];26, Suppl S1:29-30. Available from:

Vaccination is an important aspect of prevention of several infections but at times, it may lead to complications by virtue of technical mishaps. Before recommending vaccine to anyone, practitioner must ensure the technical aspects of vaccine administration. One should ensure following points:

  1. Right patient
  2. Right vaccine/diluents
  3. Right time
  4. Right dose
  5. Right route
  6. Right site
  7. Right technique
  8. Right documentation
  9. Right storage and handling- maintain correct temperature.
The schedule, dosing, route, and site have already been discussed previously. Here, we will focus on the technical aspect of vaccine administration.

Administration of vaccines:

  1. Occupational health and safety issues - Utmost care should be practiced while administering vaccine so as to minimize the risk of needle stick injury and exposure to blood and body fluids. A new, sterile, disposable syringe and needle must be used for each injection. Used items must be discarded into a clearly labeled container as per biomedical waste management protocol. Vaccine providers should be aware of disposal and handling sharp containers
  2. Equipment for vaccination - Appropriate equipment required for vaccination, such as appropriate size, gauge of needle should be used [Table 17]. Correct vaccines should be selected, maintained at correct temperature, and prepared as per requirement of the said vaccine (for example, reconstituted or prefilled vaccine). Vaccines should never be mixed in one syringe, and local anesthetic should not be mixed with a vaccine. Multidose vials should not be used. If unavoidable, extra precautions must be utilized to avoid contamination and maintain sterility
  3. Preparation for vaccine administration - The receiver should be made comfortable and in adequate position. There is a potential of syncope after the vaccination and appropriate measures should be taken to prevent it. Hence, receiver should be adequately seated or lying. One may clean the skin using alcohol swab. Topical anesthetic may be used, if required, in children who are apprehensive, but at recommended time before the procedure
  4. Recommended injection sites are anterolateral thigh (for infants) and the deltoid (for adults). Ventrogluteal region is an alternative site for all ages [Figure 1]
  5. Vaccination injection technique - Hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based waterless antiseptic is recommended before vaccine preparation. For multiple injections, the most painful dose should be given as last vaccine. The correct route of administration should be ensured for individual vaccine
  6. Figure 1: Preferred site for vaccine injections (diagrammatic)

    Click here to view

    Figure 2: Technique of administering vaccines

    Click here to view

    • Intramuscular injection - use appropriate needle, position the limb, pierce the needle at 90°
    • Subcutaneous injection - use appropriate needle, pierce at 45° [Figure 2]
    • Intradermal injection - requires expertise and should be administered only be specialists.
  7. Postvaccination - After vaccination, receiver should be observed for about 15 min. Vaccination-related events should be noted and informed to regulatory authorities.

Table 17: Description of vaccine administration site and route

Click here to view

Contraindications and precautions of each vaccine should be followed at each visit.

There should be a checklist for immunization at all facility centers. The checklist should include education, protocol of administration, vaccine handling, administering immunization, and recording of procedures. The checklist should be filled at every visit for individual receiver.


  [Table 17], [Figure 1]

  [Figure 2]


Print this article  Email this article


Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07