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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 359-364

Role of gut-derived uremic toxins on oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease


1 Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
P. V. L. N. Srinivasa Rao
Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati - 517 507, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_71_17

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Several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been identified among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gut-derived uremic toxins (GDUT) are important modifiable contributors in this respect. There are very few Indian studies on GDUT changes in CKD. One hundred and twenty patients older than 18 years diagnosed with CKD were enrolled along with forty healthy subjects. The patients were classified into three groups of forty patients based on stage of CKD. Indoxyl sulfate (IS), para cresyl sulfate (p-CS), indole acetic acid (IAA), and phenol were estimated along with the assessment of oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory state, and bone mineral disturbance. All the GDUT increased across the three groups of CKD. All patients had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as compared to controls. IS and IAA showed positive association with MDA/FRAP corrected for uric acid, whereas IS and p-CS showed positive association with IL-6. IS, IAA, and phenol showed a positive association with calcium × phosphorus product. GDUT increase OS and inflammatory state in CKD and may contribute to CVD risk.






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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07