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 REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-8

Enamel renal syndrome: A systematic review


1 Medicine School, Institute of Health Sciences, State University of Montes Claros, Unimontes, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
2 Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, State University of Campinas, FOP-UNICAMP, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil
3 Dentistry School, State University of Montes Claros, Unimontes, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Gabriela Oliveira Ornela
Rua Porto Seguro, 1100, Montes Claros- Minas Gerais, Postal Code: 39.401-290
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_27_19

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The enamel renal syndrome (ERS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is associated with mutations in the FAM20A gene. The syndrome is characterized by impaired amelogenesis of the hypoplastic type and nephrocalcinosis, presenting with presence of thin or absence of enamel, late dental eruption, intrapulpal calcifications, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and normal plasma calcium level. The objective is to characterize ERS by systematically literature reviewing, highlighting the main findings of the syndrome to increase knowledge about this condition in the health professionals. The study is a systematic review of the scientific literature, whose research was developed in the PubMed database in March 2018. A total of 69 articles were found. Two authors analyzed their abstracts and selected, according to the language and main subject, 30 articles to write this study. A total of 69 patients were cited in the studies and their data were analysed. There was gender equivalence and the ages ranged from 1 to 64 years old. There is a clear hereditary relation of the syndrome, since there was consanguinity in 18 cases, indicating a percentage of 26.08% and family history in 30 cases (43.47%). Laboratory changes vary greatly from patient to patient and may even remain unchanged. The relationship between the syndrome and the mutation in the FAM20A gene can be proven from the data, since all patients with ERS screened by the mutation were positive. With the advancement of the ERS studies, some associations with the syndrome are suspected, such as the presence of gingival fibromatosis, hearing loss, and hypertrichosis. Thus, it is noticed that the syndrome does not show a predilection for gender or age and there is a strong hereditary character, marked by the consanguinity and family history of the patients. The association with the FAM20A gene is reinforced, since the mutation was identified in all patients analyzed.






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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07