Advertisment

Indian Journal of Nephrology About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback | Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Current Issue | Archives| Ahead of print | Search |Instructions |  Editorial Board  

Users Online:1599

Official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology
  Search
 
  
 ~  Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Search Pubmed for
 ~  Search in Google Scholar for
 ~Related articles
 ~  Article in PDF (612 KB)
 ~  Citation Manager
 ~  Access Statistics
 ~  Reader Comments
 ~  Email Alert *
 ~  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed908    
    Printed23    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded53    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 


 
  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 135-141
 

Delayed gastric emptying among Indian patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease


1 Department of General Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Dhanvantrinagar, Puducherry, India
2 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Dhanvantrinagar, Puducherry, India
3 Department of Physiology, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha University, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Nephrology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Dhanvantrinagar, Puducherry, India

Date of Submission29-Sep-2019
Date of Acceptance23-Dec-2019
Date of Web Publication20-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kolar Vishwanath Vinod
Additional Professor, Department of General Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Dhanvantri Nagar, Pondicherry - 605 006
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_331_19

Rights and Permissions

  Abstract 


Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal bloating, and poor appetite are more frequent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and may contribute to poor nutritional intake and malnutrition. Delayed gastric emptying (GE), one of the important contributors to these symptoms, has not been evaluated systematically in different stages of non-diabetic CKD, among Indian patients. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional analytical study aimed to find out the frequency of delayed GE in non-diabetic CKD (stages: 3,4,5) patients and also to study the correlation between delayed GE and symptoms of gastroparesis, autonomic neuropathy and nutritional parameters. Patients were subjected to evaluation of symptoms of gastroparesis by standardized questionnaire (gastroparesis cardinal symptom index), nutritional status (by anthropometric measures and serum albumin), autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV) and GE by gastric scintigraphy with a standardized solid rice idli (savory cake) meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid. Results: Of the 89 non-diabetic CKD (stages-3,4,5) patients evaluated, 22 (≈25%) had delayed GE and 8 (≈9%) rapid GE. Prevalence of delayed GE was higher among stage 5 (15/49, 31%) compared to stages 3 and 4 (7/40, 17.5%), though the difference was statistically insignificant. There was no association between delayed GE and symptoms of gastroparesis and autonomic neuropathy. Though not statistically significant, nutritional parameters (body mass index, skinfold thickness, and serum albumin) were poorer in the delayed GE group compared to the rest. Conclusion: Delayed GE, irrespective of symptoms, may contribute to malnutrition and hence should be looked for in non-diabetic CKD patients with unexplained malnutrition.


Keywords: Autonomic neuropathy, chronic kidney disease, gastric emptying, gastric scintigraphy, idli meal


How to cite this article:
Kumar MS, Vinod KV, Pandit N, Sharma VK, Dhanapathi H, Parameswaran S. Delayed gastric emptying among Indian patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. Indian J Nephrol 2021;31:135-41

How to cite this URL:
Kumar MS, Vinod KV, Pandit N, Sharma VK, Dhanapathi H, Parameswaran S. Delayed gastric emptying among Indian patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. Indian J Nephrol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 16];31:135-41. Available from: https://www.indianjnephrol.org/text.asp?2021/31/2/135/309898



  Introduction Top


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence is increasing in India, contributing to a significant burden on the healthcare system and increased healthcare costs. Compared to general population, upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, retching, abdominal bloating/pain, and loss of appetite are more common among CKD patients.[1] These symptoms may contribute to poor nutritional intake, malnutrition and poor psychological well-being.[1],[2],[3] Malnutrition in CKD contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms behind these upper gastrointestinal symptoms in CKD are still under investigation. Apart from uremic toxins and chronic inflammation, delayed gastric emptying (GE) is one of the important contributors to these symptoms and its treatment may improve symptoms and quality of life.[3],[4],[5] Different studies, employing different methods for evaluation of GE, have reported delayed GE in 35–70% of CKD patients.[5],[6] Detection and treatment of delayed GE have been reported to improve nutrition in non-diabetic CKD patients on dialysis.[7],[8] Symptomatic delayed GE, otherwise known as gastroparesis, has been reported to increase morbidity and hospitalizations in CKD patients on peritoneal dialysis.[9]

Although few studies have evaluated GE in patients with CKD, most of them have involved end-stage kidney disease patients on either maintenance hemodialysis[3],[6],[7],[8],[10] or peritoneal dialysis.[6],[7],[8],[11] To the best of our knowledge, only one small Indian study has evaluated GE in non-diabetic CKD patients so far.[5] However, the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms and abnormalities of GE have not been studied systematically in different stages of non-diabetic CKD, among Indian patients. Studies have reported a poor correlation between symptoms suggestive of delayed GE and objectively documented delayed GE in CKD patients.[5],[6],[7],[10],[12] Different studies have employed different methods for evaluation of GE, making a comparison between them difficult. The gold standard test recommended for studying GE is gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) carried out with a solid meal such as egg (chicken egg) white sandwich labeled with Technitium-99m sulfur colloid and the test has been recommended to be carried out hourly for four hours.[13] There is a paucity of data on the contribution of autonomic neuropathy to delayed GE among non-diabetic CKD patients. With this background, the primary objective of the present study was to find out the frequency of delayed GE in non-diabetic CKD stage 3, 4,5 patients. The secondary objectives were to study the correlation between scintigraphically documented delayed GE and symptoms of gastroparesis and autonomic dysfunction and also to assess the impact of delayed GE on nutritional status among non-diabetic CKD (stage 3, 4, 5) patients.


  Materials and Methods Top


This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted between January 2017 and February 2018, at a tertiary care teaching hospital located in southern India. Adult non-diabetic CKD patients aged between 18 and 65 years, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 body surface area (i.e., CKD stages 3, 4, and 5) were included in the study, irrespective of the presence or absence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of delayed GE. GFR was estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation for adults[14] and the serum creatinine was measured during steady-state renal function. Acutely ill/hospitalized patients, those with known peptic ulcer disease, hypothyroidism/hyperthyroidism, urinary tract infection, inflammatory bowel disease, connective tissue diseases, prior vagotomy/gastrojejunostomy/bariatric surgery, concomitant therapy that could have altered gastric motility/caused acute worsening of renal function and pregnant and lactating women were excluded from the study. The study was approved by the institute scientific and ethics committees and written informed consent was obtained from all participants of the study.

Study patients were recruited from medicine and nephrology outpatient clinics and convenience sampling was followed. All patients underwent detailed clinical and laboratory assessments, including plasma glucose and thyroid function tests. All study patients had undergone dietary counseling in medicine and nephrology outpatient clinics. However, their dietary intake could not be supervised. The burden of symptoms suggestive of delayed GE over the previous three months was assessed by a standardized self-administered questionnaire- the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI).[15] GCSI comprises three subscales: nausea/vomiting (three items), fullness/early satiety (four items) and bloating (two items). Symptom severity was rated by the patients as follows: none (0), very mild (1), mild (2), moderate (3), severe (4) and very severe (5). GCSI total score was calculated from the average of three symptom subscales and it ranged from 0 to 5, higher scores reflecting greater symptom severity. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric parameters such as body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness and mid-arm circumference. Skinfold thickness was measured using Idass™ skinfold caliper at five different body sites (biceps, triceps, subscapular region, abdomen and thigh), according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) guidelines.[16] Mid-arm circumference was measured in the right arm. In those with upper limb arteriovenous (AV) fistula, mid-arm circumference and skinfold thickness were measured in the other limb. All anthropometric measurements were taken on the day following hemodialysis in those on maintenance dialysis.

Autonomic function was assessed based on heart rate variability (HRV). HRV was assessed by time domain and frequency domain variables. Time domain variables such as standard deviation of all NN or RR intervals (SDNN) and RMSSD (square root of mean of sum of squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals) reflect parasympathetic tone. Frequency domain parameters included very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and total power (TP). VLF, LF and HF contribute to TP, which represents resting HRV. LF mainly indicates sympathetic tone and HF parasympathetic activity in an individual. LF/HF reflects the overall balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tones.

GES was carried out between 8 am and 12 pm on a different day, after the assessment of GCSI and HRV. After 10–12 h of overnight fasting, a standardized solid rice idli (a type of savory rice cake) meal labeled with 1 mCi of Technitium-99m sulfur colloid was administered. Further information on this meal and normative data on GE derived from healthy controls have been reported earlier.[17] The meal consisted of three idlis prepared from 60 g of MTR™ premixed rice idli formula and 60 mLwater (caloric content ≈215 kcal, fat content ≈3% by weight). Patients were instructed to consume the meal within 10 min, with 10 g of coconut chutney and were asked not to consume other food or beverages for subsequent 3 h. The radiolabeled meal intake was supervised to ensure complete ingestion of meal. Smokers were instructed not to smoke on the day of scintigraphy. GES was carried out for 3 h and 1-minute images of the abdominal region were captured under Siemens T6 dual-head gamma camera using a 128 × 128 matrix immediately post-meal, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after the intake of meal. Percentage retention was calculated by drawing a region of interest around the stomach in the geometric mean images. Normative data for GES and HRV have been established in our hospital from 30 healthy adults (18 men and 12 women, age range 24–58 years). Based on GES carried out with radiolabeled solid idli meal in 30 healthy controls, gastric retention of >10% radiotracer activity at 3 h was indicative of delayed GE. Similarly, retention of <30% radiotracer activity at 1 hour indicated rapid GE.[17]

Statistical analysis

A sample size of 89 was estimated, with an expected prevalence of delayed GE of 35% among non-diabetic CKD patients,[6] with 5% level of significance and 5% absolute precision. GES profile data has been expressed as frequencies and percentages. The association of delayed GE with symptoms of gastroparesis was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test. The comparison of continuous parameters such as BMI, skinfold thickness and mid-arm circumference in relation to delayed GE was carried out by using independent student t-test. Comparison of HRV test variables with GE was done with Mann-Whitney U test. HRV test parameters were compared between stage 5 CKD and stages 3 and 4 CKD using Mann-Whitney U test. The association between delayed GE and CKD stage was assessed by using Chi-square test/Fisher's exact test. Statistical tests were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 19 and analyses were done at 5% level of significance and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant.


  Results Top


Initially, 163 CKD (stages 3, 4 and 5) patients without known diabetes were screened for eligibility [Figure 1]. Out of them, 89 non-diabetic CKD patients completed symptom evaluation by GCSI, HRV and GES testing and were finally included for analysis. Their characteristics are shown in [Table 1]. The age of study patients ranged from 19 to 65 years and nearly three fourths (65/89, 73%) were in the age-group of 40–65 years. Out of 49 stage 5 CKD patients, 33 (67.3%) were on renal replacement therapy and all of them were on maintenance hemodialysis.
Figure 1: Shows recruitment of study patients

Click here to view
Table 1: Characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients enrolled in the study (n=89)

Click here to view


Results of gastric emptying (GE) scintigraphy

Out of the 89 non-diabetic CKD patients, two-thirds (59) had normal GE, one-fourth (22) had delayed GE (defined by gastric retention of >10% radiotracer activity at the end of 3 hours) and 8 (9%) had rapid GE (defined as <30% radiotracer retention at the end of 1 hour). The median age among those with and without delayed GE was 48.5 (42.3–57.0) and 51 (37.0–58.5) years respectively. Thus, there was no association of age with delayed GE (P = 0.91, Mann-Whitney U test). Although there was a marginally higher prevalence of delayed GE among males compared to females [27.4% (17/62) vs. 18.5% (5/27)], the difference in delayed GE between two sexes was not statistically significant (P = 0.371, Chi-square test). In this study, 20% (4/20) of stage 3, 15% (3/20) of stage 4 and ≈31% (15/49) of stage 5 CKD patients showed delayed GE. Thus, although delayed GE was more prevalent among stage 5 compared to stages 3 and 4 CKD patients, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.21, Fisher's exact test). Out of 49 stage 5 CKD patients, 33 were on maintenance hemodialysis and 16 were dialysis naïve at study enrollment. Among stage 5 CKD patients, the prevalence of delayed GE was significantly higher in those who were on maintenance hemodialysis for >2 weeks compared to patients who were either dialysis naïve or newly initiated on hemodialysis for ≤2 weeks [14/28 (57.1%) vs. 1/21 (4.8%) respectively, P = 0.0006 (Fisher's exact test)].

Eight (≈9%) study patients had rapid GE and their median age was 45 (36–60) years. Among them, 3 were males and 5 were females, 6 had stage 5 CKD (3 were on maintenance hemodialysis) and one each had stage 4 and stage 3 CKD.

GE and symptoms of gastroparesis

[Table 2] shows prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis among CKD patients with and without scintigraphically documented delayed GE. In general, study patients had minimal symptoms (median GCSI total score: 0.88 [0.63–1.16]). There was no clinically significant difference in gastroparesis symptom scores between patients with and without delayed GE, though the symptom scores were slightly higher in the former group [Table 2].Patients with rapid GE also had minimal upper gastrointestinal symptoms similar to those with delayed GE.
Table 2: Symptoms of delayed gastric emptying (GE) among CKD patients with and without delayed GE (n=89)

Click here to view


GE and heart rate variability

Time domain variables such as SDNN, RMSSD and frequency domain parameters such as VLF, LF, HF and TP were studied in 89 study patients [Table 3]. There was an overall decrease in the HRV, sympathetic and parasympathetic tone among patients. There was no significant difference in HRV parameters between CKD patients with and without delayed GE [Table 3], suggesting that delayed GE group did not have a higher burden of autonomic dysfunction compared to the rest. Though both sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were reduced to a greater extent in stage 5 CKD compared to stages 3 and 4, the differences were not statistically significant.
Table 3: HRV parameters among study patients in relation to delayed GE (n=89)

Click here to view


GE and nutritional parameters

[Table 4] shows nutritional parameters among 89 CKD patients enrolled in the study, in relation to GE. Although nutritional parameters such as BMI, mid-arm circumference, skinfold thickness and serum albumin were lower in patients with delayed GE compared to those without delayed GE, the differences were not statistically significant. Even among 49 stage-5 CKD patients, though all nutritional parameters were lower in patients with delayed GE compared to those without delayed GE, the differences were not statistically significant [Table 5].
Table 4: Nutritional parameters among study patients in relation to delayed GE (n=89)

Click here to view
Table 5: Nutritional parameters among stage 5 CKD patients in relation to delayed GE (n=49)

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Delayed GE has been studied well in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, with and without nephropathy and CKD. However, there is a paucity of data on delayed GE in non-diabetic CKD patients, especially from India. The present study sought to find out the frequency of delayed GE in stage 3, 4 and 5 non-diabetic CKD, using the recommended GES with a standardized solid meal. We administered standardized rice idli meal instead of other test meals that are more widely used in the west such as egg (chicken egg) white sandwich, chicken liver and minced beef.[18] The latter test meals would have been less culturally acceptable to our study patients. Rice idli meal is easy to prepare, has the advantage of being gluten-free and has been established as a solid test meal for GES in earlier Indian studies.[17],[19] Though guidelines recommend continuing GES study up to 4h,[13],[18] we could not extend the study for 4h because of small meal size, faster GE for rice idli meal and logistic constraints. Faster GE for rice idli meal in the present study, compared to egg white-bread meal,[13],[18] can be explained based on the lower protein content in the former. We chose to use the CKD-EPI creatinine equation for estimation of GFR, as it has been shown to perform better compared to four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockroft-Gault formulae in Indian CKD patients.[20]

Different methods used for estimation of GFR for CKD staging, differences in test meals and methods used for assessment of GE and different populations of CKD patients studied make the comparison of the present study with previous ones difficult. Another Indian study[5] involving 32 non-diabetic CKD patients and employing Technitium-99m sulfur colloid labeled bread and mixed fruit jam meal has reported a higher prevalence of delayed GE of 69%, compared to 25% prevalence noted in the present study. The same study used GE T1/2(half-time of emptying) instead of percentage retention of radiotracer at three or four hours to diagnose delayed GE, which can explain the differences in reported prevalence of delayed GE. It should be noted that GE T1/2may be less accurate and hence not preferable for evaluation of delayed GE compared to percentage retention of radiotracer at fixed time points.[18] A Swedish study,[6] employing fluoroscopic evaluation of GE of spherical radiopaque markers, has reported a 36% prevalence of delayed GE among CKD patients. Barring a Brazilian study,[21] several previous studies[5],[6],[9],[11],[12],[22] have reported an increased prevalence of delayed GE among CKD patients. Delayed GE was more frequent in male CKD patients in the Swedish study,[6] similar to findings in the present study. Delayed GE was not limited to stage 5 CKD alone and seen in stages 3 and 4 as well in the present study. However, the prevalence was higher in stage 5 (albeit statistically insignificant) compared to stages 3 and 4 (31% vs 17.5%). There is a lack of information from previous studies on the frequency of delayed GE in different stages of CKD. One interesting finding from the present study is the occurrence of rapid GE in 9% of CKD patients, which has not been reported so far. Additionally, symptoms in patients with rapid GE didn't differ from those in patients with delayed GE. This is not surprising given the fact that rapid emptying of stomach contents and the resultant acute small bowel distention may produce abdominal bloating/discomfort, nausea and vomiting, the symptoms seen in delayed GE as well.[18]

Consistent with findings in the present study, several previous studies[5],[6],[8],[12] have reported poor or no correlation between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and delayed GE. Several other factors in CKD such as uremic toxins, changes in the chemical composition of saliva, chronic inflammation, impaired gastric accommodation and visceral afferent hypersensitivity resulting from autonomic neuropathy may also be responsible for upper gastrointestinal symptoms, apart from delayed GE.[4],[17],[23] However, low overall symptom severity among patients in this study[median GCSI total score: 0.88 (interquartile range: 0.63–1.16), [Table 1] might have confounded the lack of association between delayed GE and symptoms. Few studies[3],[22],[24] have found a correlation between delayed GE and dyspeptic symptoms. Among stage 5 CKD patients, delayed GE was not affected by hemodialysis in the present study and was, in fact, higher among patients on hemodialysis for >2 weeks compared to the rest. Though few studies have reported no increase in the prevalence of delayed GE among hemodialysed CKD patients compared to healthy controls,[10],[25] other studies[12],[21] have not shown reduced rates of delayed GE among hemodialysed CKD patients compared to others yet to be initiated on dialysis. Another study,[26] similar to the present study, has reported the persistence of impaired GE despite adequate hemodialysis.

There was a decrease in the HRV, sympathetic and parasympathetic tones among CKD patients compared to healthy controls in the present study, similar to findings in an earlier study.[27] However, there was no difference in the burden of autonomic dysfunction between CKD patients with and without delayed GE, contrary to findings in another Indian study.[5] The latter study used different methods for assessing GE and autonomic function, which can explain the difference in findings.

Anthropometric measures and serum albumin in the present study were similar to those reported in another Indian study evaluating nutritional status among CKD patients.[28] In the present study, though not statistically significant, delayed GE group had poorer nutrition (as suggested by lower anthropometric measures and serum albumin) compared to the rest [Table 4] and [Table 5]. Similar findings of more severe malnutrition among CKD patients with delayed GE have been reported in earlier studies.[8],[11],[26] This reemphasizes the fact that delayed GE may partly contribute to malnutrition in CKD patients. Additionally, efforts aimed at improving delayed GE with prokinetic drugs in CKD patients[7],[8] have shown beneficial effects on nutrition. Hence, it is advisable that CKD patients with unexplained malnutrition should be evaluated for delayed GE with GES.

Limitations

This hospital-based study may not reflect the true picture of delayed GE among non-diabetic CKD patients in the community. The observed frequency of delayed GE among CKD patients in the present study was lower than the frequency assumed for calculating sample size. Nearly a third of patients enrolled initially had to be excluded from final analysis as they could not complete the study [Figure 1] and this might have affected the results. GES could not be extended up to 4 h as per recommendations, because of small meal size and logistic constraints. However, this probably would not have significantly affected the results as GE at 3 h correlates well with GE at 4 h.[29]


  Conclusion Top


Nearly a quarter of patients with non-diabetic CKD (stages 3, 4, 5) showed delayed GE, the frequency of which was higher in stage 5 compared to stages 3 and 4. There was no association between delayed GE and symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis and autonomic neuropathy. Though not statistically significant, delayed GE was associated with poorer anthropometric measures and lower serum albumin levels among non-diabetic CKD patients. Non-diabetic CKD patients with unexplained malnutrition should be screened for delayed GE with GES, irrespective of symptoms of gastroparesis.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Zhang X, Bansal N, Go AS, Hsu CY. Gastrointestinal symptoms, inflammation and hypoalbuminemia in chronic kidney disease patients: A cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrol 2015;16:211.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Strid H, Simrén M, Johansson AC, Svedlund J, Samuelsson O, Björnsson ES. The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic renal failure is increased and associated with impaired psychological general well-being. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002;17:1434-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Salles Junior LD, Santos PR, dos Santos AA, de Souza MH. Dyspepsia and gastric emptying in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. BMC Nephrol 2013;14:275.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Carrero JJ. Mechanisms of altered regulation of food intake in chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr 2011;21:7-11.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Alimchandani A, Pai-dhungat JV. A study of gastric emptying in chronic renal failure. J Assoc Physicians India 1997;45:835-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Strid H, Simrén M, Stotzer PO, Abrahamsson H, Björnsson ES. Delay in gastric emptying in patients with chronic renal failure. Scand J Gastroenterol 2004;39:516-20.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ross EA, Koo LC. Improved nutrition after the detection and treatment of occult gastroparesis in non-diabetic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1998;31:62-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Silang R, Regalado M, Cheng TH, Wesson DE. Prokinetic agents increase plasma albumin in hypoalbuminemic chronic dialysis patients with delayed gastric emptying. Am J Kidney Dis 2001;37:287-93.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gallar P, Oliet A, Vigil A, Ortega O, Guijo G. Gastroparesis: An important cause of hospitalization in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients and the role of erythromycin. Perit Dial Int 1993;13:S183-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Adachi H, Kamiya T, Hirako M, Misu N, Kobayashi Y, Shikano M, et al. Improvement of gastric motility by hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. J Smooth Muscle Res 2007;43:179-89.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Stompór T, Hubalewska-Hola A, Staszczak A, Sulowicz W, Huszno B, Szybinski Z. Association between gastric emptying rate and nutritional status in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2002;22:500-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Kao CH, Hsu YH, Wang SJ. Delayed gastric emptying in patients with chronic renal failure. Nucl Med Commun 1996;17:164-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Camilleri M, Parkman HP, Shafi MA, Abell TL, Gerson L. Clinical guideline: Management of gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol 2013;108:18-38.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:604-12.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Revicki DA, Rentz AM, Dubois D, Kahrilas P, Stanghellini V, Talley NJ, et al. Development and validation of a patient-assessed gastroparesis symptom severity measure: The gastroparesis cardinal symptom index. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;18:141-50.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) anthropometry procedures manual (electronic resource). Atlanta: National Center for Health Statistic 2007; Available from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_07_08/manual_an.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Aug 5].  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Anudeep V, Vinod KV, Pandit N, Sharma VK, Dhanapathi H, Dutta TK, et al. Prevalence and predictors of delayed gastric emptying among Indian patients with long standing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Gastroenterology 2016;35:385-92.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Abell TL, Camilleri M, Donohoe K, Hasler WL, Lin HC, Maurer AH, et al. Consensus recommendations for gastric emptying scintigraphy: A joint report of the American neurogastroenterology and motility society and the society of nuclear medicine. J Nucl Med Technol 2008;36:44-54.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Somasundaram VH, Subramanyam P, Palaniswamy SS. A gluten-free vegan meal for gastric emptying scintigraphy: Establishment of reference values and its utilization in the evaluation of diabetic gastroparesis. Clin Nucl Med 2014;39:960-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Mulay AV, Gokhale SM. Comparison of serum creatinine-based estimating equations with gates protocol for predicting glomerular filtration rate in Indian population. Indian J Nephrol2017;27:124-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
21.
Hirata ES, Mesquita MA, Alves Filho G, Camargo EE. Gastric emptying study by scintigraphy in patients with chronic renal failure. Rev Bras Anestesiol 2012;62:39-47.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Hirako M, Kamiya T, Misu N, Kobayashi Y, Adachi H, Shikano M, et al. Impaired gastric motility and its relationship to gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic renal failure. J Gastroenterol 2005;40:1116-22.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Manley KJ. Saliva composition and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease. J Ren Care 2014;40:172-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Van Vlem B, Schoonjans R, Vanholder R, De Vos M, Vandamme W, Van Laecke S, et al. Delayed gastric emptying in dyspeptic chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2000;36:962-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Soffer EE, Geva B, Helman C, Avni Y, Bar-Meir S. Gastric emptying in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis. J Clin Gastroenterol 1987;9:651-3.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
De Schoenmakere G, Vanholder R, Rottey S, Duym P, Lameire N. Relationship between gastric emptying and clinical and biochemical factors in chronic haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001;16:1850-5.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Makimoto H, Fujiu K, Shimizu K, Lin T, Amiya E, Asada K, et al. Impaired heart rate variability in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease- Prominent disruption of vagal control and daily fluctuation. IJC Metabolic & Endocrine 2005;9:22-7.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Vijayan M, Abraham G, Alex ME, Vijayshree N, Reddy Y, Fernando E, et al. Nutritional status in stage V dialyzed patient versus CKD patient on conservative therapy across different economic status. Ren Fail 2014;36:384-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Pathikonda M, Sachdeva P, Malhotra N, Fisher RS, Maurer AH, Parkman HP. Gastric emptying scintigraphy: Is four hours necessary? J Clin Gastroenterol 2012;46:209-15.  Back to cited text no. 29
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
 

    

Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07