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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 536-543

A prospective study of emphysematous pyelonephritis in patients with type 2 diabetes


1 Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, MMIMSR, Ambala, Haryana, India
3 Department of Urology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
4 Department of Medicine, subdivision Nephrology, SRMS IMS Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Tauseef Nabi
Consultant Endocrinology, Department of Endocrinology, MMIMSR, Ambala, Haryan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_411_19

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Introduction: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma. There is a lack of studies on follow up of EPN patients. The study aimed to explore the effect of EPN in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on glycemic and renal parameters on follow up, and factors suggesting the failure of medical treatment. Methods: This was a hospital-based prospective study done over a period of 3 years on newly diagnosed consecutive 20 patients of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) with T2D. Study analyzed the clinical, laboratory, radiological, microbiological findings, complications, treatment modality, and outcome. All patients were followed up for 6 months with respect to the number of urinary tract infections (UTIs), glycemic control, and renal parameters. Results: Most of the patients were postmenopausal females with longer duration of diabetes and complicated by triopathy. Fever and renal angle tenderness were the most common clinical finding. The majority of our patients 12 (60%) had EPN (class 1 and 2). Severe hyperglycemia was present in 19 (95%), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) in 5 (25%), diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in 3 (15%), and acute kidney injury (AKI) in 15 (75%). Bacteriuria was present in 90% and bacteremia in 30%. E. coli was the most common organism isolated (80%). The survival rate was 90%, with failure of medical treatment in 30%. Renal obstruction and worsening azotemia predicted the failure of medical management. The significant number (11, 55%) of patients developed recurrent UTI on follow up. Factors that increased the risk of recurrent UTI in EPN were chronic kidney disease, poor glycemia, and renal obstruction. The recurrent UTI patients had significantly higher glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at follow up than at baseline, but renal parameters did not differ. Conclusions: We recommend early aggressive medical treatment of EPN. Altered sensorium, renal obstruction, and deteriorating renal function may suggest the failure of medical treatment.






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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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