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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 206-215

Acute kidney injury in a tertiary care center of South India

Department of Nephrology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, The Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Old Jail Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
M Edwin Fernando
Professor and Head of Department of Nephrology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, The Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Old Jail Road, Chennai - 600 001, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_481_20

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Background and Objective: Data regarding the epidemiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) from our part of the world are limited. The irking consequences of AKI, both on the patient and the health care system, are being increasingly recognized. We aimed to study the epidemiology and short-term outcomes of AKI and to analyze the factors associated with adverse renal outcomes. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied AKI patients stratified according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage, regarding clinicodemographic data, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and 90-day outcomes. Those with preexisting CKD Stage 4 (defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and above, prior renal transplant (s), or acute glomerulonephritis were excluded. The primary outcome was a composite of de novo CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or CKD progression (decline in eGFR category to any higher stage) in patients with baseline CKD at 90 days. The secondary outcome was a composite of de novo CKD, CKD progression, or death at 90 days. Results: Of the 358 patients, 52.5% had Stage 3 AKI. Eighty-eight patients (24.6%) had baseline CKD. Sepsis (51.4%) was the predominant etiology followed by nephrotoxins (42.5%). Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 94 (26.3%) patients with hemodialysis being the most common modality. After excluding lost to follow-up, 66 patients (20.3%) had the primary outcome, and 195 patients (60%) had the secondary outcome. The 90-day mortality was observed in 39.7% of patients. AKI stage (P = 0.002), baseline CKD (P = 0.000) and RRT need (P = 0.005) were significantly associated with the primary outcome, while age >60 (P = 0.018), SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) ≥9 (P = 0.000), hypoalbuminemia (P = 0.024), baseline CKD (P = 0.000) and RRT need (P = 0.001) were associated with the secondary outcome. Conclusion: Sepsis was the dominant precipitant of AKI and a major proportion had preventable etiology. AKI severity, baseline CKD status, and RRT need were found to predict the development or progression of CKD.


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Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07