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  ~ Table of Contents - Current issue
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May-June 2021
Volume 31 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 211-330

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COMMENTARY  

Renal vein thrombosis in vasculitis p. 211
Vinant Bhargava
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_313_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The Gamma Gap Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Chronic Dialysis Patients p. 212
Petar J Avramovski, Aleksandar Petlichkovski, Maja Avramovska, Biljana Ilkovska, Kosta Sotiroski, Zorica Nikleski, Emilija Sikole
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_342_19  
Introduction: The gamma gap (γ-gap) represents the total serum protein concentration minus the albumin concentration. The main aim of this study was to test whether the gamma gap is a predictor of mortality and whether it is associated with other predictors of mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients (CHPs). Materials and Methods: We studied a cohort of 100 CHPs with a mean age of 59 ± 12.3 years with duration of dialysis 6.5 ± 4.7 years. Serum proteins were determined by electrophoresis. The association of the gamma gap with serum C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and albumin concentration was evaluated for correlation. Cox regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of mortality. Results: The γ-gap correlates positively with CRP (r = 0.247, P = 0.013) and fibrinogen (r = 0.239, P = 0.016), and inversely with albumin (r = -0.430, P < 0.0001). The regression coefficients (b) and Exp (b) hazard ratio coefficients of covariates in Cox-regression survival analysis in all-cause outcomes were: b = 0.1486, Exp (b) = 1.1602 (P < 0.0001); b = 0.0655, Exp (b) = 1.0677 (P < 0.0015) and b = -0.118, Exp (b) = 0.8887 (P < 0.0009), for γ-gap, CRP and albumin, respectively. Conclusions: In patients on chronic hemodialysis, the gamma gap, along with serum albumin and CRP levels, is an independent predictor of mortality. Gamma gap levels correlate directly with serum CRP and fibrinogen levels and inversely with serum albumin levels.
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Effects of rosmarinic acid on methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in wistar rats p. 218
Leila Jafaripour, Reza Naserzadeh, Ehsan Alizamani, Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mashhadi, Ebrahim Rahmani Moghadam, Negar Nouryazdan, Hassan Ahmadvand
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_14_20  
Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX), used in the treatment of cancerous patients, causes toxicity in the different organs of the body. This study of rosmarinic acid (RA) is as an antioxidant on nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by MTX. Methods: Rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups: sham; MTX; 100 mg\kg RA + MTX; 200 mg/kg RA + MTX. The amount of MTX was 20 mg/kg. 24 hours after injection of the last dose of MTX, the blood samples and kidneys and liver of rats were studied. The aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, serum creatinine were assessed. Tissue antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. The liver and kidney tissues were histopathologically examined. Results: MTX significantly increased the urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP levels, and renal MDA and significantly decreased renal catalase (CAT), hepatic glutathione (GSH), and hepatic CAT activity. MTX induced necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, eosinophilic casts, glomerular damage in kidney tissue and necrosis, degeneration and cellular vacuolization in liver tissues. RA at 100 mg/kg caused a significant decrease in ALT and AST and at two doses significantly decreased urea, renal MDA, and liver MDA. RA at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the renal CAT and liver GSH. RA in two doses significantly decreased necrosis and Leukocyte infiltration. RA caused a significant decrease in degeneration and cellular vacuolization in liver tissues. Conclusions: RA with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics decreased the MTX induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.
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Long-term outcome of lupus nephritis: A single center study p. 225
M Limesh, Prashanth G Kedlaya, S Renuka, N Vinod
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_25_20  
Introduction: There is paucity of data on long-term outcome of lupus nephritis (LN) from south India. Our study looks at long term outcomes in patients with biopsy proven LN with terms of response to therapy, flare, mortality, treatment-related complications, outcome and post flare analysis. We also analyzed the factors which predicted the outcome. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted from 2005 to 2012 at St. John's Medical college and hospital, Bangalore. Patients received treatment as per NIH protocol. Patients of LN who regularly visited OPD were included. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 19 software. Results: At end of 84 ± 6 months (N = 59), 38 subjects showed complete remission (CR), 6 partial remission (PR), 3 developed chronic kidney disease, 2 developed end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), and 10 died. In outcome of flare (N = 15), 7 had nephrotic flare, 3 had refractory flare, 3 showed nephritic flare with 2 developing ESKD. Change of LN class was 3 subjects had changed to class II from class IV, 1 to class II from class V, 7 to class III from class IV, 2 to class IV from class V, and 2 to class IV from class VI. Factors predicting poor outcomes were serum creatinine, hypertension at presentation, and failure to achieve remission in 1 year. 7 subjects conceived, of which 4 of them were treated with azathioprine (AZA) and 3 of them who were on mycophenolate mofetil and was changed to AZA. 4 subjects had successful pregnancy outcome, 2 had preeclampsia, and 1 subject had missed abortion. Conclusion: At end of 84 ± 6 months, patient survival rate was 84%.
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Role of intravenous ascorbic acid in the management of anemia in hemodialysis patients p. 230
Howayda El Shinnawy, Abdel Rahman Khedr, Ahmad Alghitany, Marina Ramzy, Aber Halim Baki
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_356_19  
Introduction: Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) suffer from functional iron deficiency where despite the presence of sufficient iron stores in the body, adequate iron is unavailable for heme synthesis. This study hypothesis was that in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), administration of intravenous (IV) ascorbic acid (AA) exerts a good effect on the management of anemia, either by increasing the mobilization of iron from tissue stores or acting as an antioxidant to overcome the inflammatory block and increase the erythropoietin sensitivity. Methods: Fifty patients with ESRD who were on regular HD were included in the study. Patients' ferritin levels ranged from 500 to 1200 ng/mL with transferrin saturation of 30% or more. However, all patients were anemic and received erythropoietin therapy. Iron therapy was discontinued in the first group, whereas it was continued in the second group that received IV AA. Results: A significant increase in the levels of Hb was observed in the second group after 6 months despite the decrease in ferritin levels in both the groups. Transferrin saturation decreased in both groups, the decrease being more in the first group. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased in the second group, whereas these increased in the first group. Conclusions: Intravenous AA as an adjuvant therapy with iron exerts a favorable and significant effect on the Hb, serum ferritin, and CRP levels in patients with ESKD having anemia. The discontinuation of iron therapy only decreases the serum ferritin levels and does not improve the Hb or CRP levels.
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Dialysis vascular access: Where do tunneled catheters stand? – A single-center experience p. 235
Subho Banerjee, Divyesh Engineer, Jaydeep Hirpara, Nilav Shah, Rutul Dave, Keshab Sil, Vivek Kute, Himanshu Patel, Pankaj R Shah
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_266_19  
Introduction: Tunneled cuffed catheters (TCC) provides a short and intermediate-term access solution for dialysis patients who fail to get an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). They are associated with high morbidity and mortality along with high rates of infectious complications. Methods: We present a single-center prospective cohort of 159 TCCs inserted over one year. Patients were dialyzed in-hospital and in various peripheral dialysis units attached to the institute. The primary endpoint was catheter drop-out. Results: The mean age of patients was 41.8 ± 16.9 years. The right internal jugular vein was the commonest site of TCC insertion (66%). The absence of suitable veins was the predominant reason for TCC insertion. The mean time to catheter drop-out was 134.4 ± 83.3 days (5–399 days). Death with a working catheter was the most common cause of catheter drop-out (22.6%). About 25% of catheters were lost to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), either alone or as overlap with poor flow. CRBSI rates were 3.74 episodes per 1000 catheter-days. No difference in survival between the staggered tip and split-tip catheters was found. Conclusions: With the advent of the “hub and spoke” model for dialysis in the public sector healthcare, TCCs are suboptimal with regards to patient and catheter survival, with high infection rates. It must be regarded as a temporary solution and AVF creation should be prioritized.
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Prevalence of clinically significant anti-HLA antibodies in renal transplant patients: Single-center report from north India p. 240
Rajni Chauhan, Aseem Kumar Tiwari, Chhavi Rajvanshi, Simmi Mehra, Abhishek Saini, Geet Aggarwal, Shyam Bihari Bansal, Vijay Kher, Shoma Paul Nandi
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_353_19  
Introduction: Solid organ transplantation is the preferred therapeutic modality of treatment in patients affected by terminal organ failures. Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) plays an important role in graft survival. In many of the cases of rejection, antibodies are directed against HLA antigens expressed on the cells of the transplanted organ. Pre-transplant compatibility testing involves the use of different methodologies for the determination of anti-HLA antibodies. Luminex single-antigen bead (SAB) assay demonstrates higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting anti-HLA antibodies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HLA antibodies in pre-transplant work up recipients, planned for renal transplant at a tertiary care center in India. Methods: 1640 patients visiting tertiary care hospital for pre-transplant compatibility testing were screened with complement-dependent micro-lymphocytotoxicity crossmatch (CDC-XM) and flow cytometric crossmatch (FC-XM). The patients positive for either or both screening tests were assayed with the Luminex SAB tests in order to establish defined antigen specificity of the alloantibodies and determining donor-specific antibody (DSA). Results: The two most frequent antibodies identified in each A, B, C locus of HLA class I were -A*24:03 (43.9%), A*25:01 (36.6%), B*57:01 (40.3%), B*15:12 (37.1%), C*17:01 (61.9%), C*07:01 (52.4%) and in DR, DQ DP locus in HLA class II were DRB1*09:01(40.0%), DRB1*14:04(37.6%), DQA1*04:01/DQB1*03:03 (58.4%), DQA1*05:01/DQB1*03:01 (55.1%), DPA1*02:01/DPB1*17:01 (55.0%), DPA1*02:01/DPB1*05:01 (45.0%). Conclusion: This study has found the prevalence and specificity of anti-HLA antibodies in north India.
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Etiological spectrum of infective diarrhea in renal transplant patient by stool PCR: An Indian Perspective p. 245
Vaibhav Tiwari, Yogeshman Anand, Anurag Gupta, Smita Divyaveer, Vinant Bhargava, Manish Malik, Ashwani Gupta, Anil Kumar Bhalla, DS Rana
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_169_20  
Introduction: Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among renal transplant patients. The etiological spectrum of pathogens varies with regional diversity, socioeconomic conditions, sanitation, and eating habits. We aimed to delineate the etiological profile of gastrointestinal pathogens in renal transplant patients using the stool Polymerase chain reaction. Methods: In this single-center, retrospective analysis of patients from January 2016 to January 2018, all renal transplant patients who were admitted with severe diarrhea and underwent the stool Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included. In the control group, we included patients from the general population who were admitted with similar complaints in the general medicine ward and underwent stool PCR over the same duration. Results: One hundred ten admissions occurred over 2 years in the transplant group. 86% of samples were positive for infection. More than one organism was seen in 68% of the patient. Norovirus was the most common organism isolated. Giardia lamblia with Norovirus was the most common coinfection among the transplant population. In the control group, 87% of samples tested positive, with 53% of patients having more than one organism. Enteroaggregative E. coli was the common organism, Enteroaggregative E. coli with Enteropathogenic E. coli and Enterotoxigenic E. coli were the most common organism in combination. Both the groups had similar incidence of infection with multiple organisms. Conclusion: The etiological profile of gastrointestinal pathogens differs significantly between the transplant and general population. Coinfections are common in both populations. Norovirus is the most common pathogen in the transplant population, presenting as isolated as well as in coinfections.
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Deceased donor renal transplantation: A single center experience p. 254
Kunal Kapoor, Sandeep Kumar, Ashish Sharma, Deepesh Benjamin Kenwar, Sarbpreet Singh, SP Shiva, Harbir Singh Kohli, Rajinder Kaur
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_66_20  
Introduction: Deceased donor kidney transplant are still not common across India. This study was done to assess various measures taken at a single center level to increase organ donation rate and to analyse the outcomes of transplants performed from these donors. Methods: All deceased donor renal transplants performed from November 2011 to February 2017 were analysed for patient and death censored graft survival, rate of delayed graft function, rate of rejection and mortality. Kaplan Meir analysis for Survival Curves was used. Results: Organ donation rate at our center improved from one donation every alternate year in 2004 to a peak of 44 donations in 2017. Patient survival was 93.42%, 89.44%, 85.53%, and death censored graft survival was 94.07%, 88.21%, and 82.86% at 1, 2 and 3 years respectively. Mean duration of hemodialysis pre transplantation was 34.6 ± 27.43 months. Conclusions: This study has shown that steps taken at a single center level alone can also significantly improve organ donation rates. Employment of dedicated professionals including transplant surgeons and coordinators, developing a protocol-based approach for referral, and early counseling in triage along with regular audits can help to establish deceased donor program with acceptable outcomes elsewhere in the country.
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Outcomes of spousal versus parental donor kidney transplants: A comparative study p. 261
Raghuram Bhat, Sajith Narayanan, Ismail Naduvileparambil Aboobacker, Benil Hafeeq, Feroz Aziz, Sreejesh Balakrishnan, Anjaney Yadur, Shysil Shafeeq, Sooraj Sasindran, Abdul Gafoor Pacheerikuth, NA Uvais
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_43_20  
Introduction: Parents and spouse constitute 70% of organ donors in India. Some centres use induction immunosuppression (IS) for all spousal transplants considering it as an immunologically high risk. This study was designed to compare the outcomes of transplant recipients who received parental donors (PDs) and spousal donors (SDs) without any induction IS. Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Adults aged 18 years or above who underwent renal transplantation from a SD or PD between January 2006 and December 2016 were included in the study. Results: Our study included 154 patients with PDs and 75 patients with SDs. The mean recipient age of the PD group was 27.79 ± 6.85 years and of the SD group was 45.62 ± 7.96 years (P < 0.001). However, the follow-up period was significantly higher for the PD group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between acute rejection, patient loss, mean survival, graft survival (uncensored), and death censored graft survival between two groups. Conclusion: The outcomes of immunologically low-risk transplant recipients who have received PD and SD are similar and induction immunosuppression can be avoided in these patients.
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Daily Urinary Sodium Excretion Monitoring in Critical Care Setting: A Simple Method for an Early Detection of Acute Kidney Injury p. 266
Carlos G Musso, Diana Silva, Fernanda Propato, Yeny Molina, María de los Ángeles Velez-Verbel, Norbey Lopez, Sergio Terrasa, Henry Gozalez-Torres, Gustavo Aroca-Martinez
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_53_20  
Introduction: Making an early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is crucial. Classical biomarkers are not capable of early detection of AKI, but novel biomarkers that do have this capability are expensive and not universally available. This prospective study attempts to mitigate these limitations through the evaluation of daily urine analysis on patient admitted to a critical care unit in order to detect early AKI. Methods: Daily urinary indices were measured on every patient admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from the time of admission until his/her discharge from the ICU or death. This renal monitoring consisted of daily blood and spot morning urine samples in order to measure creatinine, urea, sodium, chloride and potassium in order to calculate the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), chloride, urea and potassium. The data collected on these patients in the previous days was analyzed to determine whether or not there was a significant statistical difference in the urinary indices one day before the clinical diagnosis of AKI (day – 1) and 2 days before the diagnosis (day – 2). The statistical test applied was a single rank test, using as a limit of significance a value of P < 0.05. Results: Of the 203 patients included, 61 developed AKI. A statistical significant difference was documented only in the value of urinary sodium (UNa) and FENa between day-1 (one day before AKI clinical diagnosis) and day-2 (two days before AKI clinical diagnosis). Conclusion: Daily monitoring of UNa and FENa detected a significant change in their basal values 24 hours before clinical diagnosis of AKI was made.
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COVID-19 infection in renal transplant patients: Early report from india p. 271
Gaurav Bhandari, Vaibhav Tiwari, Anurag Gupta, Vinant Bhargava, Manish Malik, Ashwani Gupta, Anil Kumar Bhalla, Devinder S Rana
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_323_20  
Introduction: COVID –19 has gripped the whole world and patients with comorbidities especially kidney ailments are at higher risk of developing severe disease. Among kidney disease, transplant patients are the most vulnerable group. Information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in kidney transplant patients is very limited. Methods: An observational study was conducted on 20 kidney transplant patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction from April to June 2020. Results: The majority of cases were males (85%). The median age of the patients was 50 years (interquartile range [IQR] 40.75–60.75). Diabetes and hypertension were present in 55% and 95% of patients, respectively. Coronary artery disease was present in three patients (15%). The median time from transplant to COVID-19 testing was 54 months (IQR 36–105). Chronic allograft nephropathy was found in 35% of patients. The mean baseline creatinine was 1.71 mg/dL. The most common symptom was fever (80%). Acute Kidney Injury was seen in 60% of patients with a mean creatinine of 2.60 mg/dL. Based on severity, 50% of patients had mild disease, 25% moderate disease, and the remaining 25% had severe disease. All 20 patients were on oral steroids, calcineurin inhibitors (18 on tacrolimus and two on cyclosporine), and antimetabolite (19 on mycophenolate mofetil and one on azathioprine). Antimetabolite agents were stopped in all patients and tacrolimus was stopped in severe cases (25%). Hydroxychloroquine was given in 15 patients (75%). Fifteen patients (75%) recovered while five (25%) died. Conclusion: Kidney transplant recipients infected with COVID-19 have high mortality.
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Development and validation of a novel food-frequency questionnaire for hemodialysis patients in Lucknow, India p. 276
S Namrata Rao, Abhilash Chandra, Poonam Tiwari, Prabhaker Mishra
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_134_19  
Introduction: Food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a preferred tool for longitudinal dietary assessment and has been recently validated in patients on hemodialysis in other countries. As dietary habits vary vastly across regions, this study was planned to develop and validate a novel dialysis FFQ in northern India. Materials and Methods: Dietary recall data from patients on hemodialysis available from the previous year were used for identifying food items for inclusion in the FFQ. A nutrient database was created to estimate energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium content of the foods included in the food list. The FFQ was validated against a 2-day dietary recall method (one predialysis, one on the dialysis day) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis in a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, northern India. Results: Dietary recall data from 78 patients on hemodialysis were used for the generation of the FFQ. A total of 84 patients completed the validation study. All the nutrients measured by the FFQ correlated significantly with the means of the 2-day dietary record (r values 0.31–0.76) both in crude- and energy-adjusted intakes. De-attenuation further improved the correlation (0.35–0.80). Bland-Altman plots showed higher estimates by FFQ than by dietary recall. Cross-classification analysis showed correct classification in the exact or adjacent quintile (average 60%) by both methods and 2% gross misclassification. Weighted kappa showed fair agreement for energy intake and slight agreement for others. Conclusion: This novel semiquantitative FFQ is a valid tool for measuring energy and nutrient intakes in hemodialysis patients.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Two Cases of Vasculitis with Renal Vein Thrombosis p. 283
Mehul Mazumdar, Bhavin S Mandowara, Himanshu A Patel, Prakash Darji
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_306_19  
We present a series of two cases of ANCA associated Vasculitis (AAV) presenting as Pulmonary Renal syndrome with associated renal vein thrombosis. Although there are enough evidences suggesting association of venous thrombosis with AAVs, the incidence of renal vein thrombosis is rare. Renal vein thrombosis should be ruled out in cases where there is delay in recovery of renal function in patients with AAV. Positive laboratory values for anti-Proteinase-3 (PR3) and anti-Myeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA in the cases that presented as Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis, helped in early initiation of treatment with complete recovery of Renal function.
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IGg4-related disease presenting as rapidly progressive renal failure and inguinal iymphadenopathy p. 286
Maniyar Iqbal Anvar, Jayaram N Iyenger, Shweta S Mehta, Biradar Jagdeeshkumar
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_377_19  
A 58-year-old man presented with swelling in the left inguinal region and loss of appetite, nausea and azotemia with a serum creatinine of 5.2 mg/dL and urine albumin of 1+ and normal size kidneys with no hematuria. His serum creatinine increased to 9 mg/dL over 1 month, his total proteins were 10.8 and serum albumin was 3.3 g/dL, and lymph node excision biopsy showed fragments of lymphoid tissue with interfollicular areas containing sheets of plasma cells and atretic germinal centers. In view of unexplained renal failure, he underwent renal biopsy, which showed interstitial inflammatory infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and rich in plasma cells with storiform fibrosis and a possibility of IgG4-related renal disease was reported. On further evaluation, serum electrophoresis showed no M band. Serum IgG4 levels were 18.2 g/L (0.03–2 g/L). A diagnosis of IgG4-related renal disease was confirmed.
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Association of IgA nephropathy with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: – Case report and review of literature p. 290
Harshavardhan T Sanathkumar, K Thirumalvalavan, T Yashwanth Raj, ND Srinivasaprasad, S Sujith, Edwin M Fernando
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_361_19  
A 32-year-old habitual tobacco chewer was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. He was initiated on chemo-radiation therapy. After completing 23 cycles of radiation and four cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, he presented with acute nephritic syndrome. Renal biopsy showed IgA nephropathy and acute tubular injury. With supportive care, renal function stabilised with a reduction in proteinuria. We wish to highlight the poorly understood association between mucosal malignancies and IgA nephropathy. It is also interesting to note the peculiar temporal profile of glomerular involvement in our patient, where the onset of the glomerulonephritis was after the initiation of chemo-radiotherapy. This is unlike what has been described earlier.
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An unusual neurological syndrome in a haemodialysis patient p. 293
Nisha Jose, V Jayaprakash, A Deiva, M Jayakumar
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_11_20  
Advanced age and immunosuppressed states allow for complications of herpes zoster such as encephalitis. In this case report, we describe a patient with encephalopathy two days after initiation of antiviral therapy. After the necessary imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, it became evident that the neurological syndrome was due to acyclovir. Despite currently practised renal dose modification, the patient developed acyclovir-induced neurotoxicity and required intensification of his dialysis schedule to eliminate the drug. Acyclovir-induced neurotoxicity is a rare clinical presentation and presents a clinical dilemma to the physician who has to distinguish this entity from herpes zoster encephalitis and posterior circulation stroke.
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Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in end stage renal disease p. 296
Balachandran P Jyothsna, Kunjappa Vinod Kumar, Narayanan V Unni, Gopinath Praveen, Joshua P Shejoy, Bipi Prasannan
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_372_19  
We report a case of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. There was no previous history of trauma or surgery. Secondary hyperparathyroidism due to progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a rise in intracranial pressure resulted in spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. He underwent endoscopic endonasal repair with theco-peritoneal shunt; CSF leak stopped completely and the patient is doing well on one year follow up.
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Plasmapheresis in hypertriglyceride-induced pancreatitis: A series of four cases p. 299
Prawash Kumar Chowdhary, Sanjeev Anant Kale
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_26_20  
Hypertriglyceride-induced Acute Pancreatitis is a devasting condition. The rapid reduction of serum triglyceride is a key factor in its management. Beside the reduction in Triglyceride level plasmapheresis has other added advantage. Early initiation of plasmapheresis within 48 hrs has a better outcome. Plasmapheresis should be performed until triglyceride levels have been lowered to 500mg/dl. Here, we present a series of four cases of hypertriglyceride induced pancreatitis who underwent plasmapheresis. All the patients were diabetics. All cases showed the rapid reduction of triglyceride levels after plasmapheresis. Three patients were discharge from hospital, where as one patient died due to Sepsis. Out of four patients only one required Renal Replacement therapy
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Association of acute interstitial nephritis with nivolumab in renal cell carcinoma: A case report p. 303
Befa Noto-Kadou-Kaza, Geoffroy Desbuissons, Corinne Bagnis Isnard
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_62_20  
Recently, a number of innovative anticancer agents such us the programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitors have been developed. Nevertheless, this type of immunotherapy may be associated with immune-related adverse events whose pathophysiology is considered similar to those found in autoimmune diseases such as nephritis. We report the case of a 71-year-old female with metastatic renal carcinoma who underwent nephrectomy. After three lines of other chemotherapies (VEGF and mTOR inhibitors), the patient was treated by nivolumab (3 mg/kg) for 4 months and developed acute kidney injury 16 weeks after initiating this immunotherapy. Kidney biopsy displayed a diffuse extensive interstitial inflammation associated with moderate interstitial edema. The discontinuation of nivolumab and the administration of prednisone (at 1 mg/kg and tapered over 3 months) was an effective treatment of the interstitial edema and led to the recovery of the kidney function.
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Renal hypouricemia with exercise induced acute kidney injury-A case report p. 307
Srikanth Gundlapalli, Yogesh Gaur, M Venkateswar Rao, Sujeeth Reddy Bande, P Sandhya
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_127_20  
Acute kidney injury after exercise is most commonly secondary to rhabdomyolysis. Non-rhabdomyolysis AKI is secondary to a limited number of disorders of which renal hypouricemia (RHUC) needs a special mention. It is relatively a rare genetic disorder and is reported in Japanese and Ashkenazi Jews. Humans have lost the ability to metabolize uric acid as the “uricase” gene is suppressed. Renal tubules handle uric acid and aid in maintaining serum concentrations in the soluble range. Uric acid excretion is increased in RHUC patients due to proximal tubular defects. This leads to the loss of antioxidant capabilities of the kidney, predisposing them to severe AKI following anaerobic exercise. We report a case of exercise-induced AKI secondary to renal hypouricemia.
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Blind bedside peritoneal dialysis catheter repositioning: An innovative technique p. 311
Santosh Varughese, Suceena Alexander, Anna T Valson, Anjali Mohapatra, Vinoi G David, Shibu Jacob, Elenjickal E John, Pradeep M Koshy, Jeethu J Eapen, Athul Thomas, Sabina Yusuf
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_417_19  
Catheter malfunction in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients may lead to technique failure. Surgical repositioning is sometimes required for resumption of PD and is associated with additional costs of procedure and hospitalization. Meanwhile, patients may need hemodialysis via a temporary vascular catheter with increasing costs and risk of catheter-associated bacteremia. We describe an innovative technique of blind bedside PD catheter repositioning as a possible alternative to surgical repositioning when there is catheter malfunction. In 29 patients over a period of 3 years, we attempted blind bedside PD catheter repositioning with immediate successful inflow and outflow in all of them after repositioning. At 1 month, 21 (72.4%) patients had good catheter function and at 6 months, 19 (65.5%) patients were continuing successful PD. This bedside innovative procedure allowed for catheter salvage without constructing a new exit site or tunnel and without the requirement of a break-in period. The benefits to the patient in terms of cost and shortened hospital stay make it ideal for resource-poor settings. We suggest that this innovative technique be attempted before resorting to the open surgical method of PD catheter repositioning.
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Adenovirus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy and necrotizing interstitial nephritis in a renal transplant recipient: A case report and review p. 314
Harshavardhan T Sanathkumar, Anila Abraham Kurien, Yashwanth T Raj, Edwin M Fernando
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_344_19  
Adenoviral infections, though rare, may be a source of significant morbidity and mortality in the early post renal transplant period. We present a case of fever and graft dysfunction in a deceased donor renal transplant recipient whose initial post-operative period was complicated by vascular thrombosis and ureteric necrosis. He had received induction immunosuppression with Rabbit-Anti Thymocyte Globulin. Graft biopsy was suggestive of Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA) accompanied by intense interstitial inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis, WBC casts and tubular injury. Viral cytopathic changes were discernible on light microscopy, leading to suspicion of adenoviral infection. This was confirmed with immunohistochemical demonstration of adenoviral antigens in the graft biopsy. He was treated with a step down of immunosuppression and intravenous Immunoglobulin. However, the patient's general condition deteriorated rapidly, and he succumbed to his illness. We highlight this association of TMA and necrotizing tubulo-interstitial nephritis with adenoviral infection of the renal allograft.
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Recurrent, atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease p. 319
Jagadish S Jamboti, Rajalingam Sinniah, Lloyd Dorsogna, Christian Holmes
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_414_19  
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (GBM) (Goodpasture's disease) typically presents with acute manifestations of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis often accompanied by lung haemorrhage. Anti-GBM disease is usually monophasic. However, atypical presentations with indolent renal involvement are being increasingly recognized. Herein we report a patient who presented with lung haemorrhage, minimal renal involvement, and negative result for serum anti-GBM antibody, while immunofluorescence examination of the renal biopsy provided the diagnosis leading to the institution right treatment with excellent response. Interestingly, he had presented 10 years earlier with lung hemorrhage, more significant renal involvement clinically and histologically, with positive serum anti-GBM antibody. The present case is intended to increase our awareness regarding the variable presentations of anti-GBM disease, such as with negative serology and recurrence of anti-GBM disease. The presentation of anti-GBM nephritis with non-proliferative, non-crescentic glomerulonephritis is also highlighted. The possible explanations for negative serum anti-GBM antibody are explored with a brief review of literature.
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IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY Top

Extramedullary hematopoiesis: An unusual cause for acute kidney injury p. 322
Anila Abraham Kurien, Dinesh Kumar Thanigachalam, Natarajan Gopalakrishnan
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_73_20  
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

From hesitancy to certainty: A case of successful desensitization in high risk HLA incompatible kidney transplantation p. 324
Prashant Pandey, Divya Setya, Vijay K Sinha, Amit K Devra, Amit Pande, Praveen Kumar, Shweta Ranjan
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_392_19  
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Chronic Kidney Diseases of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) Hot spot at Narsinghpur and Badamba blocks in costal Districts of Odisha, India p. 327
Himansu Sekhar Mahapatra, Neeraj Inamdar
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_56_20  
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Lentiform fork sign in a child on hemodialysis p. 329
Radhika Chemmangattu Radhakrishnan, Susan Uthup, Liji Rajesh, Reeba George Pulinilkunnathil
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_4_20  
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Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07