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  ~ Table of Contents - Current issue
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May-June 2022
Volume 32 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 193-284

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COMMENTARY  

COVID-19 infection among dialysis patients and staff p. 193
PP Varma
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_586_20  
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Deciphering the autoimmune pathogenesis in fibrillary glomerulonephritis: The story is not yet complete p. 195
Muhammed Mubarak
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_293_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

A unified citywide dashboard for allocation and scheduling dialysis for COVID-19 patients on maintenance hemodialysis p. 197
Viswanath Billa, Santosh Noronha, Shrirang Bichu, Jatin Kothari, Rajesh Kumar, Kalpana Mehta, Tukaram Jamale, Nikhil Bhasin, Sayali Thakare, Smriti Sinha, Geeta Sheth, Narayan Rangaraj, Venugopal Pai, Amaldev Venugopal, Akshay Toraskar, Zaheer Virani, Mayuri Trivedi, Divya Bajpai, Shrikant Khot, Rasika Sirsat, Alan Almeida, Niwrutti Hase, Sundaram , Hariharan , Swapnil Hiremath, Iqbal Singh Chahal, on behalf of the 'Project Victory' consortium
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_48_21  
Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant global disruption, especially for chronic care like hemodialysis treatments. Approximately 10,000 end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) at 174 dialysis centers in Greater Mumbai. Because of the fear of transmission of infection and inability to isolate patients in dialysis centers, chronic hemodialysis care was disrupted for COVID-19-infected patients. Hence, we embarked on a citywide initiative to ensure uninterrupted dialysis for these patients. Materials and Methods: The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) designated 23 hemodialysis facilities as COVID-positive centers, two as COVID-suspect centers, and the rest continued as COVID-negative centers to avoid transmission of infection and continuation of chronic hemodialysis treatment. Nephrologists and engineers of the city developed a web-based-portal so that information about the availability of dialysis slots for COVID-infected patients was easily available in real time to all those providing care to chronic hemodialysis patients. Results: The portal became operational on May 20, 2020, and as of December 31, 2020, has enrolled 1,418 COVID-positive ESKD patients. This initiative has helped 97% of enrolled COVID-infected ESKD patients to secure a dialysis slot within 48 hours. The portal also tracked outcomes and as of December 31, 2020, 370 (27%) patients died, 960 patients recovered, and 88 patients still had an active infection. Conclusions: The portal aided the timely and smooth transfer of COVID-19-positive ESKD patients to designated facilities, thus averting mortality arising from delayed or denied dialysis. Additionally, the portal also documented the natural history of the COVID-19 pandemic in the city and provided information on the overall incidence and outcomes. This aided the city administration in the projected resource needs to handle the pandemic.
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Acute kidney injury in a tertiary care center of South India p. 206
R Vairakkani, M Edwin Fernando, S Sujith, TS Harshavardhan, T Yashwanth Raj
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_481_20  
Background and Objective: Data regarding the epidemiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) from our part of the world are limited. The irking consequences of AKI, both on the patient and the health care system, are being increasingly recognized. We aimed to study the epidemiology and short-term outcomes of AKI and to analyze the factors associated with adverse renal outcomes. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied AKI patients stratified according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage, regarding clinicodemographic data, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and 90-day outcomes. Those with preexisting CKD Stage 4 (defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and above, prior renal transplant (s), or acute glomerulonephritis were excluded. The primary outcome was a composite of de novo CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or CKD progression (decline in eGFR category to any higher stage) in patients with baseline CKD at 90 days. The secondary outcome was a composite of de novo CKD, CKD progression, or death at 90 days. Results: Of the 358 patients, 52.5% had Stage 3 AKI. Eighty-eight patients (24.6%) had baseline CKD. Sepsis (51.4%) was the predominant etiology followed by nephrotoxins (42.5%). Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 94 (26.3%) patients with hemodialysis being the most common modality. After excluding lost to follow-up, 66 patients (20.3%) had the primary outcome, and 195 patients (60%) had the secondary outcome. The 90-day mortality was observed in 39.7% of patients. AKI stage (P = 0.002), baseline CKD (P = 0.000) and RRT need (P = 0.005) were significantly associated with the primary outcome, while age >60 (P = 0.018), SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) ≥9 (P = 0.000), hypoalbuminemia (P = 0.024), baseline CKD (P = 0.000) and RRT need (P = 0.001) were associated with the secondary outcome. Conclusion: Sepsis was the dominant precipitant of AKI and a major proportion had preventable etiology. AKI severity, baseline CKD status, and RRT need were found to predict the development or progression of CKD.
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COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients: Experience from a Western Indian center p. 216
Subho Banerjee, Himanshu V Patel, Divyesh P Engineer, Vaibhav Gupta, Harshit Patel, Aakash Gupta, Pankaj R Shah, Vivek B Kute
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_575_20  
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis (CKD-5D) are among the worst hit by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Need to travel for dialysis, comorbidities, and immunosuppressive state put them at risk of severe disease and poor outcomes. We report our experience of COVID-19 in a cohort of CKD-5D from a public sector tertiary-care center from western India. Material and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 58 CKD-5D patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to our COVID-19 hospital. Suspected COVID-19, acute kidney injury (AKI), or AKI on CKD were excluded. We studied the clinical, demographic, radiological, and laboratory profiles; treatment; and outcomes of the patients. We assessed the potential clinical and laboratory parameters to predict mortality. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.7 ± 16.9 years, with 55% males. Comorbidities included hypertension (65%), diabetes (19%), and cardiovascular disease (15.5%). The presenting features included fever (69%), respiratory distress (50%), upper respiratory symptoms (36%), and diarrhea (13%). Five (8.6%) were asymptomatic. Bilateral infiltrates on chest imaging were the commonest radiological pattern. The patients were managed with oxygenation, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, anticoagulation, remdesivir, and favipiravir. Twenty-two (37.9%) patients died, predominantly due to respiratory failure. Disease severity and C-reactive protein (CRP) above 175 mg/L at admission were the only parameters predictive of mortality. Conclusion: CKD-5D patients with COVID-19 were less likely to present with the classical syndrome of fever and respiratory distress compared with reports from the general population and had higher mortality. Only disease severity and high CRP (>175 mg/L) were predictive of mortality in our cohort.
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Clinico-epidemiological profile of dialysis services in Karnataka, India – A multicentric exploratory study p. 223
Arvind Conjeevaram, YJ Anupama, Lloyd Vincent, Nandakumar B Sastry, Vishwanath Siddini, Manjunath Revanasiddappa, Sanjay Srinivasa, Anilkumar B Thimmegeowda, Manjunath J Kulkarni, Vivek S Patil
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_94_21  
Introduction: New challenges in dialysis care delivery confront caregivers with the rise in dialysis numbers. There are significant lacunae in the knowledge and efficient application of dialysis therapy in the absence of a dialysis registry. This multicentric study was conducted by the Nephrology Association of Karnataka to systematically study patient demographics and dialysis characteristics in Karnataka state, India, as a basis for a statewide dialysis registry. Material and Methods: Data were collected from the consenting dialysis centers after institutional ethics board clearances. Residents of Karnataka state, who were confirmed prevalent patients with end-stage renal disease, on either maintenance hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis were included. Demographic data of patients and details of dialysis as well as dialysis facilities were collected on an online platform. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software Version 16. Results: Thirty-two centers contributed to the data of 2,050 patients (males 70.3%, mean age 53.49 ± 14.09 years). Most patients were on HD (95.3%). Diabetes was the commonest cause of chronic kidney disease. About 72% of patients had temporary venous catheters as initial vascular access. In all, 1,156 patients (59.9%) were on thrice weekly HD. Around 65% of the centers were in private hospitals. The majority (90%) of the centers reused dialyzers, 56% reprocessed dialyzers mechanically, and 66% tested viral serology quarterly. Conclusions: This study was one of the initial attempts to capture dialysis data across Karnataka, and it offers useful insight into the existing dialysis demographics and care delivery. Participation of more centers and continued effort to form a dialysis registry for deriving meaningful clinico-epidemiological insight are desirable.
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Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of dysfunctional hemodialysis vascular access: Can careful selection of patients improve the outcomes? p. 233
Tahir Khan, Mudasir Bhat, Omair A Shah, Naseer A Choh, Shadab Maqsood, Tahleel A Shera
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_113_21  
Introduction: Our study aimed to evaluate the role of endovascular intervention in salvaging hemodialysis access in patients of end-stage renal disease with specific attention to features that may predict a poor outcome. We also evaluated the role of ultrasonography (USG) in the management of these patients. Methods: Forty-two patients with dysfunctional hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) were taken up for percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stent placement. All patients underwent a pre- and postprocedural USG Doppler to assess parameters such as mean flow, mean peak systolic velocity, and vessel diameter. Technical and clinical success rates were calculated, and characteristics causing increased failure rates (long-segment and multisite stenosis and diabetes) were noted. Results: The most common sites of stenosis were the anastomotic and perianastomotic sites (n = 27, 63%) on the venous side followed by distal venous drainage site (23%) and central venous stenosis (14%). The technical and clinical success rates were 98% and 92%, respectively. Three- and 6-month patency rates were 83% and 71%, respectively. Common characteristics in patients with failure (primary or secondary) were diabetes, increased age, increased length of stenosis (>2cm) and multisite stenosis. USG Doppler parameters showed a significant improvement post-PTA (P < 0.001) indicating clinical success. No major complication was noted in our study. Conclusion: PTA is successful for dysfunctional hemodialysis access. Careful selection of patients can improve the success rates and decrease economic burden in a resource-constrained country like ours. USG Doppler is essential in the assessment of iatrogenic hemodialysis AVFs.
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Efficacy and outcomes of CYP3A5 genotype-based tacrolimus dosing compared to conventional body weight-based dosing in living donor kidney transplant recipients p. 240
T Yashwanth Raj, M Edwin Fernando, ND Srinivasa prasad, S Sujit, K Thirumal Valavan, TS Harshavardhan, Arvind Ramanathan
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_278_20  
Introduction: Clinical use of tacrolimus has been challenging due to its narrow therapeutic index and highly variable pharmacokinetics. In this study, we compared patients who received body weight-based tacrolimus dosing pre-transplant (transplanted from 2016 to 2018) with those who received CYP3A5 genotype-based dosing (2018 to 2020). Methods: Eighty-two renal transplant recipients were non-randomly assigned to genotype-adapted or bodyweight-based tacrolimus dosing groups. The primary end point was to study the proportion of subjects who achieved the target tacrolimus C0 on post-op day 4. Secondary end points included clinical outcomes and safety. Results: The proportion of subjects who achieved the target tacrolimus C0 on postoperative days 4 and 10 were significantly higher in the adapted group, 53.6% and 47.5%, compared to 24.3% and 17% in controls, respectively (P = 0.01). Adapted group subjects achieved their first target tacrolimus C0 significantly earlier (4 days) compared to 25 days in controls (P = 0.01). The total number of tacrolimus dose modifications required in the first postop month were lower in the adapted group; 47 compared to 68 in the controls (P = 0.05). The proportion of subjects with sub-therapeutic tacrolimus exposure on postoperative day 4 was significantly higher in the controls, 56% versus 10% in the adapted group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in the rate of biopsy proven acute rejections, adverse events, and graft function at the end of 3 months follow up. Conclusion: Genotype-based tacrolimus dosing leads to more subjects achieving the target tacrolimus C0 earlier. However, there may be a higher risk of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity.
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Neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin as a marker for contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A prospective observational analysis p. 247
Ankit Kumar Sahu, Pravin K Goel, Roopali Khanna, Sudeep Kumar, Aditya Kapoor, Satyendra Tewari, Naveen Garg
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_418_20  
Introduction: Incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) post percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) varies between 5% and 20%. Neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a sensitive marker for acute kidney injury. Data regarding the predictive accuracy of NGAL in Indian patients undergoing PCI is sparse. Methods: A total of 212 consecutive “all-comer” patients, undergoing PCI from March 2015 to April 2016 were recruited in this single-center observational study. Plasma NGAL levels were measured at 4 hours post PCI using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Triage® AlereTM, San Diego, CA, USA). Results: Twenty-five (11.8%) patients developed CIN. The 4-hour post-PCI plasma NGAL levels were significantly higher in patients with CIN than without (400.6 ± 269.3 ng/mL vs. 109.8 ± 68.0 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Patients developing CIN had higher age, low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and higher contrast volume usage during PCI. After adjusting for confounding factors, diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.04; P = 0.039; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06–8.73), hypotension at presentation (AOR 24.84; P < 0.0001; 95% CI: 4.65–132.83), and multi-staged PCI (AOR 13.45; P < 0.0001; 95% CI: 4.54–39.79) were found to independently predict the development of CIN. NGAL levels significantly correlated with age (r = 0.149, P = 0.031), eGFR (r = −0.385, P < 0.0001), hemoglobin (r = −0.214, P = 0.002), contrast volume (r = 0.185, P = 0.007), and 48-hour post-PCI serum creatinine levels (r = 0.334, P < 0.0001). At a cutoff of 256.5 ng/mL, plasma NGAL had a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 95.2% (area under the curve = 0.878; P < 0.0001; 95% CI: 0.801–0.955) to predict the occurrence of CIN. Conclusions: Plasma NGAL is an early and highly predictive biomarker of CIN in patients undergoing PCI. Patients having diabetes, hypotension at presentation and those undergoing second-stage procedures are at a high risk of developing CIN after PCI.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Top

Impact of the lockdown on patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis at a tertiary care facility in Southern India – A mixed-methods approach p. 256
Anna T Valson, Reena R George, Manish Lalwani, Dhivakar Balusamy, Divina S Albert, Anissa Abraham, Blesswin Richie, Naevis P Samuel, Jeethu J Eapen, Athul Thomas, Elenjickal E John, Sabina Yusuf, Annamalai V Chidambaram, Suceena Alexander, Vinoi G David, Santosh Varughese, Ilavarasi Jesudoss, Vinitha Ravindran
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_561_20  
Aims: The mass quarantine measures adopted to control the COVID-19 pandemic greatly impacted the lives of patients on haemodialysis in India. We used a mixed methods approach to study its effect on dialysis outcomes and the lived experience of haemodialysis patients during the lockdown. Methods: Quantitative data was collected from 141 subjects using a structured proforma to determine the impact of the lockdown on dialysis outcomes and travel expenses. Qualitative data collected through in-depth interviews with 9 patients by purposive sampling were recorded and transcribed to explore the lived experience of haemodialysis patients during lockdown. The cohort was followed up till October 31st 2020 for incidence of COVID-19, deaths, and dropouts. Results: The median increase in per day travel expense was 25%. Due to decrease in dialysis frequency, patients previously on thrice weekly haemodialysis experienced significant increase in pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005) compared to those on twice weekly haemodialysis. Between March 25th and July 15th 2020, 12 patients (8.5%) required emergency dialysis sessions, and 4 patients (2.8%) required admissions for hypertensive emergencies. Four main themes emerged from thematic analysis of transcribed interviews: Travel inconveniences, uncertainty resulting in anxiety, financial burden and frequency change in dialysis leading to worsening of symptoms. Twenty-two patients (15.6%) were diagnosed with COVID-19, the first case diagnosed 33 days after the first 'unlock' phase. Conclusion: The lockdown was successful in delaying infection transmission but had unintended physical and psychosocial effects on haemodialysis patients.
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Impact of fasting during ramadan on renal functions in patients with chronic kidney disease Highly accessed article p. 262
Faizan A Ansari, Muzamil Latief, Sonu Manuel, KB Shashikiran, Rohan Dwivedi, DK Prasad, Anvesh Golla, Sree B Raju
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_521_20  
Introduction: The impact of Ramadan fasting in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains less studied and with inconsistent results. In this study, we tried to look at the impact of Ramadan fasting on renal function in patients with CKD. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, we included 28 adult CKD patients. All relevant biochemical parameters including renal function tests were done in the month before Ramadan fasting and within 3 months after Ramadan. Urine output, body weight, and blood pressure were also monitored during Ramadan and after the end of Ramadan for at least 10 days. Results: All the 28 patients (mean age: 46 ± 12 years) included in the study managed to fast for the whole month, and none displayed any new clinical symptoms or signs. The renal function worsened in four (14.28%), and it was significant in those with CKD Stages 4 and 5 (P < 0.003). Conclusion: Stable CKD patients can fast with careful monitoring; however, there is a risk of renal function deterioration in advanced CKD.
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A strange case of renal graft lithiasis p. 266
Elsa Soares, Ana R Alves, Inês Figueiredo, Patrícia Cotovio, Miguel B Vieira, Fernando Caeiro, Cecília Silva, Inês Aires, Sofia Carrelha, Ana Pena, Francisco Remedio, Patena Forte, Fernando Nolasco
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_54_20  
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CASE REPORTS Top

Living donor kidney transplantation in a Covid-19-recovered donor–recipient pair: A case report p. 268
Nidhi Agrawal, Rabi Ranjan Sow Mondal, Deepak S Ray
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_453_20  
Deciding on proceeding with solid organ transplant in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era is difficult both for the transplant unit and the transplant candidate. However, with no signs of the pandemic coming to an end and given the plight of patients with chronic diseases, it becomes necessary to take the challenging path. We report a case of living donor kidney transplantation in a COVID-19-recovered donor–recipient pair with a good early posttransplant outcome. Immunosuppression was used in the usual dose as per our unit's protocol. Thorough pretransplant evaluation to rule out active SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection in both the donor and the recipient seems to be the key to avoid COVID-19 in the recipient and the transplant unit.
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Refeeding syndrome in haemodialysis patients p. 271
Prawash K Chowdhary, Sanjeev A Kale, Priyanka Shukla
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_126_20  
Nutritional therapies have shown to be efficacious and efficient, despite the overall low level of evidence. It however hides the risk of refeeding syndrome in catabolic malnourished patients. Refeeding syndrome is the metabolic response due to the switch from a starvation to a fed state in the initial phase of nutritional therapy in patients who were severely malnourished or metabolically stressed due to severe illness. Here we describe two cases of chronic kidney disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis, who developed refeeding syndrome. Both the patients had tuberculosis and were severely malnourished with subjective global Assessment (SGA) of grade C. Timely diagnosis and proper management leads to good outcome.
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Concurrent gitelman syndrome-like tubulopathy and grave's disease p. 275
Rajasekaran Kishore Kumar, Venkatesh Srimathy, Rajeev A Annigeri
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_532_20  
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the loss of function mutation of the solute carrier family-12 member-3 (SLC12A3) gene, encoding for sodium-chloride cotransporter of the distal convolute tubule. GS is characterized by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypocalciuria. GS-like syndrome has been described rarely. Hyperthyroidism due to Grave's disease (GD) is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to thyrotropin receptors. Concurrent occurrence of GS and GD is rarely reported, that too exclusively from far-east Asian populations. We describe a case of a 45-year-old man who presented with severe muscle weakness; the evaluation showed volume depletion, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, renal potassium and magnesium wasting, metabolic alkalosis, and hypocalciuria. He was also detected to have GD at the time of presentation. Genetic evaluation revealed a mutation in transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) gene. The clinical significance of this mutation in our patient remains unclear.
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Thrombotic Microangiopathy Secondary to Pancreatitis: A Diagnostic Enigma p. 279
Sahil Bagai, Vipra Malik, Dinesh Khullar, Mahadasyam S Chakravarty, Amit Sahu
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_52_21  
The association between thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and pancreatitis is well known. However, TMA leading to pancreatitis is more common than the latter. TMA and renal failure are both poor prognostic markers in acute pancreatitis. TMA, if not managed timely, can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a young boy in whom decisive and timely diagnosis and management of TMA post pancreatitis helped in complete patient and renal recovery.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Potential depression and associated factors among individuals undergoing dialysis: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey in Central Kerala p. 282
KR Neenumol, Jissa V Thulaseedharan
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_447_20  
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Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07