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  ~ Table of Contents - Current issue
November-December 2021
Volume 31 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 503-596

Online since Thursday, December 9, 2021

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Evaluation of factors influencing outcomes in pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis: Single centre experience of 51 cases p. 503
Pallav Gupta, Satyendra Dharamdasani, Anurag Gupta, AK Bhalla, Ashwani Gupta, Manish Malik, Vinant Bhargava, Vaibhav Tiwari, DS Rana, RL Sapra
Introduction: Pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (PICGN) is rare form of glomerulonephritis that frequently presents as rapidly progressive renal failure. Several prior studies have evaluated role of various factors influencing outcomes in patients with PICGN. The histopathological classification proposed by Berden a decade earlier described difference in the outcomes of patients in the focal, crescentic, mixed and sclerotic category with best prognosis for focal and worst for sclerotic group. The newly proposed renal risk score of Brix takes into account both the histopathological parameters (% of normal glomeruli, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis) and clinical parameter (eGFR) which influences outcome. Methods: Retrospective study was performed between 2014 to 2018. Biochemical parameters and ANCA details were recorded and renal histopathology slides were reviewed and classified according to Berden's histopathologic classes. All the cases were further characterized into three groups based on renal risk score (Brix et al). Univariate, multivariate analysis for risk factors predicting ESRD and Kaplan Meier Survival Analysis were done. Results: In the present study, we found eGFR (P 0.024), % of normal glomeruli (P 0.023) and IFTA (P 0.001) as important factors influencing renal outcome in patients with PICGN. More than 60% patients achieved complete remission with low renal risk score as compared to patients with high renal risk score in which 80% patients developed ESRD or death at follow up. We also found significant difference in survival among various renal risk categories (Log-Rank P = 0.001) as compared to Berden's international histological classification (Log-Rank P = 0.037) on Kaplan –Meier survival analysis. Conclusion: PICGN is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. Renal histological factors such as % normal glomeruli at time of biopsy, degree of IFTA and renal risk score play an important role in assessing prognosis in these patients.
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Water drinking practices in adpkd patients: A questionnaire based study p. 507
BN Alekhya, B Varalakshmi, B Sangeetha Lakshmi, Maria Bethasaida Manuel, M Raja Amarendra, K Naveen, N Sai Sameera, A Sunnesh, R Ram, V Siva Kumar
Introduction: Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) who have normal renal function (creatinine clearance, >90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) might potentially benefit from frequent water intake that would be sufficient to reduce plasma AVP levels and decrease the average urine osmolality, bringing it closer to that of plasma. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the patients of ADPKD, chronic kidney disease stages 1–5 were included. We formed a questionnaire on the dietary recommendation to the patients. The questions enquired whether the patients received the recommendation from the faculty and the postgraduates of the nephrology department that (a) they should consume at least 3000 mL of water per day, (b) that they should not consume coffee and tea,(c) adherence of patients to the advice of the nephrologists. Results: Of 294 patients, 142 (48.2%) did not receive any dietary recommendation. The rest 152 (51.7%) were given the appropriate dietary recommendation. Majority of the patients mentioned that they lacked the access to the water when they intend to consume. Despite the advice from the nephrologists, 95 (32.3%) failed to observe the abstinence from coffee and tea. The reason expressed for not quitting coffee and tea was the force of the habit. Conclusion: Treating doctorsfailed to inform 48% of patients the proper diet. Only 20.3% of patients consumed >3.0 litre of water per day. The demand of the agricultural work at a place away from home deprived majority of the participants of the study from the potable water.
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Catheter-related infections and microbiological characteristics in coiled versus straight peritoneal dialysis catheters in Malaysia p. 511
Anna M Abdul Rashid, Christopher T. S. Lim
Background: Catheter-related infections remain a threat in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Attempts to improve catheter insertion techniques and catheter type with best infectious outcomes yield heterogenous results. We seek to determine catheter-related infections in two different types of catheters and its microbiological spectrum. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in Hospital Serdang, Malaysia. We included end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who opted for PD and examined catheter-related infections (peritonitis, exit site infection, and tunnel tract infection) and organisms causing these infections. Results: We included 126 patients in this study; 75 patients received the coiled PD catheter (59.5%) and 51 patients received the straight PD catheter (40.5%). The majority of patients were young, under the age of 65 years old (77.3% and 72.5%) in the coiled and straight PD catheter group, respectively, and the main cause of ESRD was diabetes mellitus in both groups (78.7% vs. 92.2%). The demographic and anthropometric data were similar between both groups. Peritonitis rate (0.29 episodes/patient-years vs. 0.31 episodes/patient-years, P value = 0.909), exit site infection rate (0.31 episodes/patient-year vs. 0.37 episodes/patient-year, P value = 0.730), and tunnel tract infection rate (0.02 episodes/patient-year, P value = 0.430) were similar in the coiled versus straight PD catheter groups. The predominant organism causing peritonitis was the gram-negative organism; Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In exit site and tunnel tract infections, there is a predominance of gram-negative organisms; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. Conclusions: There was no difference in infectious outcomes between the two different types of catheters. Type of organism in both groups was gram-negative.
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Endovascular embolization in problematic hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas: A nonsurgical technique p. 516
Raghunandan Prasad, Amrin Israrahmed, Rajanikant R Yadav, Somesh Singh, Manas Ranjan Behra, Ravi Shankar Khuswaha, Narayan Prasad, Hira Lal
Introduction: In the past, surgical techniques were considered gold standard practice for obliterating the accessory veins, reducing the flow across the high flowing arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), or for closing the problematic hemodialysis AVFs. However, recently endovascular embolization has emerged as a safe and cost-effective alternative to these surgical techniques. In this study, technical and clinical success, and safety of endovascular embolization have been evaluated for accessory vein obliteration, flow reduction, and fistula closure in problematic AVFs using various embolizing agents. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with problematic hemodialysis AVFs, who underwent endovascular embolization for accessory vein obliteration, flow reduction, and AVF closure at our center from February 2017 to January 2019 with various embolic agents like vascular plugs (VP), thrombin, coils, and glue. Follow-up was done at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and annually thereafter. Results: In this study 30 patients with problematic hemodialysis AVFs [Left brachiocephalic fistula (BCF) (n = 22), right BCF (n = 4), and left radiocephalic fistula (RCF) (n = 4)], underwent endovascular embolization for accessory vein obliteration (n = 6), flow reduction (n = 3), and AVF closure (n = 21). Of the 6 patients undergoing embolization for obliteration of accessory collateral, 4 patients had nonmaturing AVFs and 2 patients had symptoms of venous hypertension (VH). Post embolization, all 4 AVFs matured over a month and symptoms of VH completely resolved within a week. Three patients who underwent embolization for flow reduction had patent AVF (on doppler) post procedure and they achieved adequate flow during dialysis with complete resolution of symptoms of VH. Out of 21 patients, who underwent endovascular closure, complete AVF thrombosis was seen in 18 patients only with the use of VP, while 4 patients required additional procedure to achieve complete thrombosis of AVF. Conclusion: Endovascular embolization in problematic hemodialysis AVF is a safe and cost-effective alternative to open surgical methods and vascular plug could be embolic agent of choice for AVF closure.
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COVID-19 in CKD patients: Report from India p. 524
Nikita Pawar, Vaibhav Tiwari, Anurag Gupta, Vinant Bhargava, Manish Malik, Ashwani Gupta, Anil Kumar Bhalla, DS Rana
Background: COVID-19 is a novel acute infection that is mainly manifested as acute respiratory disease. Information on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in CKD patients who are not on dialysis is very limited. We are reporting a single-center observational study on the effect of COVID-19 in CKD patients. Methods: A single-center retrospective study with consecutive patients who had eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD-EPI) admitted with COVID-19, from April to July 2020 were included. Result: A total of 30 patients were included in the study. Patients of CKD stage 5, 4 and 3 were 50%, 13.3%, and 36.6%, respectively. The mortality rate was 53.3%. Category wise, 9 were in mild; 3 in moderate, and 18 were in the severe COVID category. Twenty-five patients (83.3%) developed acute on CKD. Twenty patients (67%) required renal replacement therapy (RRT). The prognosis of patients who required RRT was poor. High LDH and IL-6 were significantly associated with mortality. Lymphopenia, present in 50% of cases was associated with fatal outcome. There was a 100% survival rate in mild to moderate cases and 11% in severe cases. Conclusion: Mortality among hospitalized CKD patients is high.
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COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients: A single centre study from Northern India p. 531
Suraj Godara, Karan Kumar Saraf, TC Sadasukhi, HL Gupta, Manish Gupta, Nripesh Sadasukhi, Ashish Sharma
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pre-immunosuppressed state along with other existing co-morbidities can influence the outcomes of COVID-19 in transplant patients Material and Methods: This was a single centre prospective cohort study done in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), who underwent kidney transplantation (from December 2012 to November 2020), who were actively followed up at our centre and were diagnosed with COVID-19 disease between 1 April and 30 November 2020. Results: A total of 62 kidney-transplant recipients tested positive for COVID-19. Their median age was 39 (19–61). Males were predominantly infected (87.1%). Fever was the most common symptom (77.42%). Thirteen (20.9%) had mild form of disease, 32 (51.6%) had moderate form and 17 (27.4%) had severe disease. Based on initial symptom, 18 (29.03%) were given home treatment, 29 (46.7%) were treated in isolation wards and 15 (24.1%) were treated in intensive care unit. Decrease in the dose of immunosuppressant (anti-metabolites in 67.7%, calcineurin inhibitor in 22.5%) was predominantly carried out as the initial mode of treatment. Remdesivir in 64.5% and anticoagulant therapy in 54.84% were given as a modality of treatment. Mortality rate in our study was 14.5%. Conclusions: Patients of kidney transplant are at high risk of getting infected with COVID-19, due to their immunosuppressed state. Initial symptoms in KTRs with COVID-19 are similar to that of the general population. Mortality rate is comparatively higher in KTRs as compared to general population.
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A prospective study of emphysematous pyelonephritis in patients with type 2 diabetes p. 536
Nadeema Rafiq, Tauseef Nabi, Shahnawaz Rasool, Rayees Yousuf Sheikh
Introduction: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma. There is a lack of studies on follow up of EPN patients. The study aimed to explore the effect of EPN in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on glycemic and renal parameters on follow up, and factors suggesting the failure of medical treatment. Methods: This was a hospital-based prospective study done over a period of 3 years on newly diagnosed consecutive 20 patients of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) with T2D. Study analyzed the clinical, laboratory, radiological, microbiological findings, complications, treatment modality, and outcome. All patients were followed up for 6 months with respect to the number of urinary tract infections (UTIs), glycemic control, and renal parameters. Results: Most of the patients were postmenopausal females with longer duration of diabetes and complicated by triopathy. Fever and renal angle tenderness were the most common clinical finding. The majority of our patients 12 (60%) had EPN (class 1 and 2). Severe hyperglycemia was present in 19 (95%), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) in 5 (25%), diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in 3 (15%), and acute kidney injury (AKI) in 15 (75%). Bacteriuria was present in 90% and bacteremia in 30%. E. coli was the most common organism isolated (80%). The survival rate was 90%, with failure of medical treatment in 30%. Renal obstruction and worsening azotemia predicted the failure of medical management. The significant number (11, 55%) of patients developed recurrent UTI on follow up. Factors that increased the risk of recurrent UTI in EPN were chronic kidney disease, poor glycemia, and renal obstruction. The recurrent UTI patients had significantly higher glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at follow up than at baseline, but renal parameters did not differ. Conclusions: We recommend early aggressive medical treatment of EPN. Altered sensorium, renal obstruction, and deteriorating renal function may suggest the failure of medical treatment.
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From infection to immunity - Impact of COVID-19 across nine hemodialysis centres in Mumbai p. 544
Viswanath Billa, Jatin Kothari, Shrirang Bichu, Rajesh Kumar, Deepa Usulumarty, Parag Tilve, Sundaram Hariharan
Introduction: There are several studies of symptomatic hemodialysis patients with proven COVID-19 infection. However, there is paucity of data on asymptomatic COVID-19 infection in the outpatient hemodialysis population. The true prevalence and transmission of this infection in hemodialysis centres is unknown. This study was conducted across hemodialysis centers by testing all patients and staff for COVID-19 PCR and later for IgG antibody, irrespective of their symptoms. Methods: All 705 hemodialysis patients and 103 dialysis staff across nine centres, were tested for COVID-19 over a period of 54 days of the pandemic, and for COVID IgG antibody of available enrolled staff and patients, after 8 weeks of study termination. Results: The period prevalence of infection in patients and staff was 7.1% and 14.6% respectively. Mortality in patients was 18%, and all staff recovered. Clustering of patients and staff occurred at 3 of 9 centers. Of 26 HIV positive patients, only one contracted the COVID-19 infection and has recovered. Of those infected, seroconversion occurred in 80% of patients and 83% of staff. Seroconversion also occurred in 16% of patients and 37% of staff, who were asymptomatic and COVID PCR negative during the study period. Conclusions: Testing a patient only when symptomatic, identified only 26% (13/50) of infected patients. For every single symptomatic patient who tested positive, there were 3 other asymptomatic infected ones. There was a high seroconversion rates in infected subjects. But antibodies also developed in asymptomatic subjects, indicating silent transmission and antibody generation in this population.
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Hypertension- one size does not fit all p. 550
Mohanasundaram Subashri, M Edwin Fernando, K Thirumalvalavan
Although the vast majority of hypertension is "essential," some may be secondary. And, an accurate diagnosis of secondary cause of hypertension provides the treating clinician with a unique opportunity that renders dramatic response to the patient, either with pharmacologic therapy or surgery. One such secondary cause of hypertension is congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11 beta hydroxylase or 17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency. These inherited syndromes are caused by deficient adrenal corticosteroid biosynthesis, in which there is reduced negative feedback inhibition of cortisol and, depending on the steroidogenic pathway involved, an alteration in adrenal mineralocortiocoid and androgen secretion occurs. Here, we present, a young adult presented with hypertension, in association with hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis, who was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to non-classical variant 11-beta hydroxylase deficiency, which responded dramatically to steroids therapy. Furthermore, we also report two new mis-sense mutations in CYP11B1 gene, a gene coding for 11-betahydroxylase enzyme.
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Continuous hemodiafiltration with the oxiris filter ameliorates cytokine storm and induces rapid clinical improvement in COVID-19 – A case report p. 555
Valentine A Lobo, Arati Lokhande, Vipul Chakurkar, Pradeep M D'Costa
Delayed interferon secretion and cytokine dysregulation are responsible for the life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan dysfunction and shock in COVID 19, which closely resembles secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). IL-6, a marker of hypercytokinemia in patients with COVID-19 is positively correlated with disease severity, development and progression of ARDS, and mortality. Therapy to either reduce IL-6 or inhibit its action with either non-specific inhibitors of inflammation like dexamthasone or Toclizumab a specific inhibitor of IL-6 has produced decrease in mortality. We describe a novel method of treatment in a patient with multiorgan involvement in COVID 19, using the oXiris hemofilter which delivers renal replacement therapy while also reducing cytokines like IL-6.
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Thrombotic microangiopathy causing acute kidney injury in a COVID-19 patient p. 559
Amitabh Kulkarni, Prashant Nasa, Srinivasa Polumuru, Aanchal Singh
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients is common and independently associated with higher mortality. The pathophysiology of AKI is multifactorial and may be either direct viral trophism or immune mediated injury and hypercoagulability. This case highlights AKI in a young female with severe COVID-19 due to complement-3 mediated thrombotic microangiopathy with pre-existing chronic kidney disease likely because of IgA nephropathy.
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Nephrocalcinosis—A gateway to the diagnosis p. 562
Mahendra Atlani, Nirendra Rai, Abhijeet Kohat, Vaibhav Ingle, Agrata Sharma, P Aparna
Nephrocalcinosis (NC) is the augmented calcium content within the renal parenchyma. Its pathogenesis mainly involves hypercalciuria. The presence of medullary NC provides a window to the clinician for the diagnosis of many important diseases. In this case series, we highlight three diseases that could be diagnosed with a high index of suspicion and detailed evaluation after their presentation as medullary NC.
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Rare case report of de-novo pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis in 1st-week post-kidney transplantation p. 566
Deepesh Vellakampadi, Vishwanath Siddini, Mahesh Vankalakunti, Kishore Babu, H Sudarshan Ballal
Early post-transplant de-novo pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis occurring within the first week post transplantation has not been reported according to the literature search done by us. Here, we are reporting a 56 years male patient who underwent living spousal donor kidney transplantation for presumed diabetic nephropathy, and developed pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN) on sixth day post-transplant. Post-renal transplant recurrence of disease in ANCA-associated vasculitis patients occurs within days to months. However, development of de-novo pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis is a rare occurrence. We report this patient who developed probable pauci-immune de-novo NCGN which responded to treatment with plasmapheresis, steroids and cyclophosphamide.
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Tacrolimus-induced epidermoid cysts in the renal transplant patient p. 571
Vaibhav Tiwari, Anurag Gupta, Chetna Gothwal, Devinder S Rana, Vinant Bhargava, Manish Malik, Ashwani Gupta, Anil K Bhalla
Epidermal cysts are common benign cystic lesions that occur mostly sporadically. Common sites involved are arms, face, and trunk. The cyst may progress slowly and remain for years. These cysts arise as a result of the plugging of the follicular orifice. Etiology has largely remained unknown although local trauma, ultraviolet rays, and human papilloma virus (HPV) have been implicated in a few cases. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) especially cyclosporine has been discredited for cutaneous side effects such as hirsutism and gingival hyperplasia. Epidermoid cysts have been also associated with patients with solid organ transplant recipients on cyclosporine. Tacrolimus is considered to be free of dermatological side effects. Herein, we report a case of 56-year-old renal allograft recipient on tacrolimus, who develop more than >100 epidermoid cysts over the face, trunk, back, and extremities. The lesions ceased to progress once the tacrolimus was stopped.
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Modalities of diagnosis and management of peritoneal dialysis-related hydrothorax including videothoracoscopy-assisted repair: A single-center experience p. 574
Narayan Prasad, Manas Ranjan Patel, Ravi Kushwaha, Manas Ranjan Behera, Monika Yachcha, Anupama Kaul, Dharmendra Bhadauria, Suresh Kumar, Amit Gupta
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related hydrothorax (PDRH) is uncommon; however, it is associated with a high discontinuation rate and morbidity. We report clinical characteristics, pleural fluid chemistry patterns, diagnostic modality, management options, and outcomes in 12 patients who have confirmed pleuroperitoneal communication after the inception of the PD program at our institute. The incidence of PDRH in our study was 0.64%. The interval between initiation of PD and hydrothorax ranged from 7 weeks to 40 weeks (average 20.6 weeks). Ten (83.3%) had right-sided, one (8.3%) left-sided, and one (8.3%) bilateral hydrothorax. Most patients (83.3%) had dyspnea with chest symptoms, but two (16.6%) patients were asymptomatic. All patients had confirmed communication either by peritoneal scintigraphy or computed topography peritoneography. PD had to be stopped in two patients and patients were shifted back to hemodialysis. Pleurodesis, through thoracostomy with tetracycline or betadine, was used for four patients. Three patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) with surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect, and one underwent VATS assisted talc pleurodesis. All four patients who underwent VATS repair of the defect had successful outcomes. With availability and experience with VATS, most patients had successfully returned to PD with no recurrence and with minimal morbidity.
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Passenger lymphocyte syndrome after renal transplant: Case report p. 580
Bhavin S Mandowara, Mehul R Mazumdar, Himanshu A Patel, Prakash I Darji
Passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) is a rare cause of anemia resulting from immune-mediated hemolysis in the post-transplant recipient. We report a case of 26-year-old male who underwent renal transplant. His mother as donor was O positive while he was A positive. He developed anemia at 1-week post-transplant, which later turned out to be PLS. Laboratory findings included rapidly decreasing Hb level and intravascular hemolysis. Hemolysis was brief, because the lymphocytes passed on with the donor organ were able to proliferate only for a while. The case signifies the importance of PLS as a cause for anemia, specifically in the early period after solid organ transplant. It is usually self-limiting, and the treatment requires blood transfusion of donor's blood group.
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MHC Class I related chain A (MICA) Antibodies - A potential cause of renal allograft rejection p. 583
Ajay Kumar Baranwal, Sanjay Kumar Agarwal, Narinder Mehra
MHC class I related chain A (MICA) antibodies, especially those directed against the donor in absence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies have been reported to be possibly associated with renal allograft rejection in sensitized recipients. We are the first ones to present a case series of five patients who underwent primary live related donor renal transplantation in non-sensitized recipients either in the presence of donor-specific MICA antibodies (MICA-DSA) or developed de novo. Four of them presented characteristics of either accelerated, acute or chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) attributable to the presence of MICA DSA. This case series emphasizes that AMR due to MICA-DSA is amenable to treatment with conventional regimens for treatment of AMR and there is a need for screening of MICA antibodies especially those directed against the donor on case to case basis.
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Successful treatment of severe heart failure in advanced diabetic kidney disease using angiotensin–neprilysin inhibitors (sacubitril/valsartan) – report of two cases with review of options in literature p. 587
Ratan Jha, Kiran K Mukku, Ambati K Rakesh, Sumeet Sinha
Patients with heart failure (HF) and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) constitute a special population that experience poor outcomes due to poor adherence to established therapies because of potential safety concerns. Role of newer agents like angiotensin–receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) in early stages of CKD is well elucidated. We report two cases of HF with reduced ejection fraction, who received ARNI in advanced stage of CKD (stage 5) and achieved remarkable outcomes in terms of quality of life and longevity.
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Anti-thymocyte globulin induced acute lung injury in a case of renal allograft recipient p. 592
Nimish Gupta, Sagar Gupta, Ritesh Mongha, Sanjay Aggarwal
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Cyst-like tumors in renal osteodystrophy Highly accessed article p. 595
Gioacchino Li Cavoli, Francesca Finazzo, Rosalia Mongiovi', Barbara Oliva, Vitalba Azzolina, Tancredi Vincenzo Li Cavoli
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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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