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Official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology
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A 10-year study: Renal outcomes in patients with accelerated hypertension and renal dysfunction

1 Department of Nephrology, Apollo Hospital, Jayanagar, Bengaluru, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Manipal Hospital, Old HAL Airport Road, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Aleya Anitha,
903, 21st Main, 38th Cross, 4th T Block, Jayanagar, Bengaluru - 560 041, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_332_19

Background: Hypertension is prevalent in 35%–46% of the general population; 1% of them experience accelerated hypertension. Among patients with accelerated hypertension, acute worsening of renal functions occur in 22%-55%. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Partial renal recovery is seen in some, while others rapidly progress to end-stage renal disease. Methods: Patients who presented with accelerated hypertension, renal dysfunction, and had undergone renal biopsy were evaluated and their clinical profile was analyzed. Those who became dialysis dependent were excluded from further follow-up. Study outcome were blood pressure control, renal functions, requirement of renal replacement and mortality. Results: Of the 30 patients evaluated, age at presentation was 41.2 ± 15.46 years and 26 (86.7%) were males, 10 (33%) had presented with nonspecific complaints. Mean duration of hypertension and blood pressure were 21.93 months and 196 ± 20.8/129 ± 12.4 mmHg, respectively. Glomerulonephritis and hypertensive nephrosclerosis had similar characteristics except proteinuria (P = 0.04). Average follow-up (n = 25) duration was 3.69 years (range: 0.05–9.6). At the end of study, 6 were dialysis dependent, while in others, mean e-GFR was 23.96 ml/min/1.73 m2. Poor renal prognosis was predicted by glomerulonephritis (relative risk-4.6) and degree of interstitial fibrosis. Five-year patient and renal survival were 94.4% and 71.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Accelerated hypertension occurs among patients with both primary and secondary hypertension. It leaves permanent renal sequelae. Though some patients recover renal function partially, further progression is rapid, especially among those with chronic glomerulonephritis.

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