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Official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology
 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Ahead of Print

Endovascular embolization in problematic hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas: A nonsurgical technique


1 Department of Radio Diagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Post graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Raghunandan Prasad,
Department of Radio Diagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow - 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_84_20

Introduction: In the past, surgical techniques were considered gold standard practice for obliterating the accessory veins, reducing the flow across the high flowing arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), or for closing the problematic hemodialysis AVFs. However, recently endovascular embolization has emerged as a safe and cost-effective alternative to these surgical techniques. In this study, technical and clinical success, and safety of endovascular embolization have been evaluated for accessory vein obliteration, flow reduction, and fistula closure in problematic AVFs using various embolizing agents. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with problematic hemodialysis AVFs, who underwent endovascular embolization for accessory vein obliteration, flow reduction, and AVF closure at our center from February 2017 to January 2019 with various embolic agents like vascular plugs (VP), thrombin, coils, and glue. Follow-up was done at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and annually thereafter. Results: In this study 30 patients with problematic hemodialysis AVFs [Left brachiocephalic fistula (BCF) (n = 22), right BCF (n = 4), and left radiocephalic fistula (RCF) (n = 4)], underwent endovascular embolization for accessory vein obliteration (n = 6), flow reduction (n = 3), and AVF closure (n = 21). Of the 6 patients undergoing embolization for obliteration of accessory collateral, 4 patients had nonmaturing AVFs and 2 patients had symptoms of venous hypertension (VH). Post embolization, all 4 AVFs matured over a month and symptoms of VH completely resolved within a week. Three patients who underwent embolization for flow reduction had patent AVF (on doppler) post procedure and they achieved adequate flow during dialysis with complete resolution of symptoms of VH. Out of 21 patients, who underwent endovascular closure, complete AVF thrombosis was seen in 18 patients only with the use of VP, while 4 patients required additional procedure to achieve complete thrombosis of AVF. Conclusion: Endovascular embolization in problematic hemodialysis AVF is a safe and cost-effective alternative to open surgical methods and vascular plug could be embolic agent of choice for AVF closure.


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Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07