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Development and validation of a novel food-frequency questionnaire for hemodialysis patients in Lucknow, India

1 Department of Nephrology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Dietetics, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Abhilash Chandra,
Department of Nephrology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Vibhuti Khand, Lucknow - 226 010, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_134_19

Introduction: Food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a preferred tool for longitudinal dietary assessment and has been recently validated in patients on hemodialysis in other countries. As dietary habits vary vastly across regions, this study was planned to develop and validate a novel dialysis FFQ in northern India. Materials and Methods: Dietary recall data from patients on hemodialysis available from the previous year were used for identifying food items for inclusion in the FFQ. A nutrient database was created to estimate energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium content of the foods included in the food list. The FFQ was validated against a 2-day dietary recall method (one predialysis, one on the dialysis day) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis in a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, northern India. Results: Dietary recall data from 78 patients on hemodialysis were used for the generation of the FFQ. A total of 84 patients completed the validation study. All the nutrients measured by the FFQ correlated significantly with the means of the 2-day dietary record (r values 0.31–0.76) both in crude- and energy-adjusted intakes. De-attenuation further improved the correlation (0.35–0.80). Bland-Altman plots showed higher estimates by FFQ than by dietary recall. Cross-classification analysis showed correct classification in the exact or adjacent quintile (average 60%) by both methods and 2% gross misclassification. Weighted kappa showed fair agreement for energy intake and slight agreement for others. Conclusion: This novel semiquantitative FFQ is a valid tool for measuring energy and nutrient intakes in hemodialysis patients.

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Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07