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Modalities of diagnosis and management of peritoneal dialysis-related hydrothorax including videothoracoscopy-assisted repair: A single-center experience

1 Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of General Surgery, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Narayan Prasad,
Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow - 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_101_20

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related hydrothorax (PDRH) is uncommon; however, it is associated with a high discontinuation rate and morbidity. We report clinical characteristics, pleural fluid chemistry patterns, diagnostic modality, management options, and outcomes in 12 patients who have confirmed pleuroperitoneal communication after the inception of the PD program at our institute. The incidence of PDRH in our study was 0.64%. The interval between initiation of PD and hydrothorax ranged from 7 weeks to 40 weeks (average 20.6 weeks). Ten (83.3%) had right-sided, one (8.3%) left-sided, and one (8.3%) bilateral hydrothorax. Most patients (83.3%) had dyspnea with chest symptoms, but two (16.6%) patients were asymptomatic. All patients had confirmed communication either by peritoneal scintigraphy or computed topography peritoneography. PD had to be stopped in two patients and patients were shifted back to hemodialysis. Pleurodesis, through thoracostomy with tetracycline or betadine, was used for four patients. Three patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) with surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect, and one underwent VATS assisted talc pleurodesis. All four patients who underwent VATS repair of the defect had successful outcomes. With availability and experience with VATS, most patients had successfully returned to PD with no recurrence and with minimal morbidity.

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