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Official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology
 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Ahead of Print

Acute kidney injury in COVID-19: Clinical profile and outcome


 Department of Nephrology, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Smriti Sinha,
Assistant professor, Department of Nephrology, 7th Floor, OPD Building, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Ch. Hospital, Mumba Central, Mumbai - 400008, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_21_21

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be a severe complication of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Follow-up data of these AKI patients, including the rate of progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD), is limited. Methods: COVID-19 patients with AKI, admitted from June 1, 2020, to August 25, 2020, were enrolled prospectively. Their clinical profile, biochemical investigations, urine analysis, treatment, and outcome in terms of mortality or discharge were analyzed. The discharged patients were followed up 3 months later to determine their renal recovery status. Results: AKI was noted in 146 out of 4,613 COVID-19 patients with an incidence of 3.16%. The outcome was available for 111 patients. According to the KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) AKI criteria, 20 (18%) patients were in Stage 1, 16 (14%) in Stage 2, and 75 (68%) in Stage 3 AKI. Proteinuria and hematuria were present in 66% and 41%, respectively. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 45 (40.5%) patients. A total of 53 (47.7%) patients turned RT-PCR negative and were discharged. The renal recovery at discharge was complete in 31 of 111 (28%), partial in 20 of 111 (18%), and none in two (2%) patients. At 3 months follow-up of discharged patients, total mortality rate was 55.85%. Twenty three of 53 (43%) recovered their renal functions to baseline and 26 of 53 (49%) had progressed to CKD. Diabetes mellitus, dyspnea, altered sensorium, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, need for RRT, lymphopenia, high neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio, hyperglycemia, raised inflammatory markers, and hematuria were associated with high mortality rate and reached statistical significance. Conclusion: AKI in COVID-19 patients has a high mortality rate (55.85%) with a high CKD progression rate among survivors (49%).


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Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07