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Acute kidney injury complicating severe acute pancreatitis: clinical profile and factors predicting mortality

1 Institute of Nephrology, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Madurai Medical College, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Deepak Kumar Selvanathan,
Institute of Nephrology, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_476_20

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently complicates severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) among the critically ill. We studied clinical profile and risk factors predicting mortality in SAP-AKI. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of 68 patients with SAP-AKI from September 2015 to September 2019. Patient data and outcomes grouped as survivors and deceased were analyzed. Results: SAP-AKI constituted 2.14% (68 of 3,169) of all AKIs with 1.5%, 20.6%, and 77.9% in Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Stages I, II and III respectively. The mean age was 39.93 ± 11.79 years with males 65 (95.6%). The causes of acute pancreatitis were alcohol addiction 59 (86.8%), highly active antiretroviral therapy 1 (1.4%), hypercalcemia 1 (1.4%), IgG4-related disease 1 (1.4%), and unidentified 6 (8.8%). Complications were volume overload, shock, respiratory failure, and necrotizing pancreatitis in 21 (30.9%), 10 (14.7%), 6 (8.8%), and 14 (20.5%), respectively. Kidney replacement therapy done in 40 (58%), with intermittent hemodialysis 36 (53%) and acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis 4 (6%). The overall mortality was 23 (33.8%), three progressed to chronic kidney disease (thrombotic microangiopathy 2; biopsy inconclusive 1). In 45 survivors, AKI recovered in 22.7 ± 9.6 days. Death occurred within first 6 days. The risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality was necrotizing pancreatitis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.143; 95% confidence interval 1.472–17.972; P = 0.01), circulatory failure (OR = 6.125; P = 0.016), peak creatinine >3 mg/dL (OR = 7.118; P = 0.068), Bedside Index of Severity for Acute Pancreatitis score >3 (OR = 8.472; P = 0.001), need for kidney replacement therapy (OR = 3.764; P = 0.024), KDIGO III (OR = 9.935; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Alcohol addiction was the commonest cause of severe acute pancreatitis. The overall mortality was 33.8%. Necrotizing pancreatitis, circulatory failure, peak creatinine >3 mg/dL, BISAPs >3, KDIGO III, and the need for kidney replacement therapy were independent risk factors for mortality.

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