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Official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology
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Pediatric glomerular diseases in North India–epidemiology and clinicopathologic correlation

1 Department of Pathology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Asif Sadiq Wani,
Zeenat Manzil, Baghat Barzulla, P.O.Sanatnagar, Srinagar, Kashmir - 190 005
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.ijn_522_21

Background: Glomerular diseases vary with age, and it is important to investigate the spectrum of glomerular diseases in pediatric patients to help in a more precise clinical diagnosis and optimize the management of patients. We aimed to study the clinicopathologic pattern of pediatric glomerular diseases in North India. Methods: This is a 5-year retrospective, single-center cohort study. The database was searched to identify all pediatric patients with glomerular diseases in their native kidney biopsies. Results: About 2890 native renal biopsies were studied, of which 409 were pediatric glomerular diseases. The median age was 15 years with a male preponderance. Nephrotic syndrome was the most common presentation (60.8%), followed by non-nephrotic proteinuria with hematuria (18.5%), rapidly proliferative glomerulonephritis (7%), isolated hematuria (5.3%), acute nephritic syndrome (3.4%), non-nephrotic proteinuria (1.9%), and advanced renal failure (0.7%). Minimal change disease (MCD) was the most common histological diagnosis, followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (17.4%), IgA nephropathy (IgAN; 10%), membranous nephropathy (6.6%), lupus nephritis (5.9%), crescentic glomerulonephritis (2.9%), and C3 glomerulopathy (2.9%). Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) was the most common histological diagnosis in patients with hematuria and non-nephrotic as well as nephrotic range proteinuria. The most common histological diagnoses for isolated hematuria and acute nephritic syndrome were IgAN and postinfectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN), respectively. Conclusions: MCD and lupus nephritis are the most common pediatric primary and secondary histopathologic diagnoses, respectively. The adolescent-onset glomerular diseases have a higher frequency of IgAN, membranous nephropathy, and DPGN. PIGN is still an important differential in our pediatric patients presenting with acute nephritic syndrome.

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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07