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Clinicopathologic manifestations of immunoglobulin a nephropathy in a Northern Indian cohort: A mute assassin with delayed diagnosis

1 Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pathology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 The Mayer Professor of Renal Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Honorary Consultant Nephrologist, John Walls Renal Unit, Leicester General Hospital, UK

Correspondence Address:
Narayan Prasad,
Professor and Head, Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow - 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.ijn_351_21

Introduction: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide, but there is a marked geographic difference in its prevalence and prognosis. IgAN is known to have an aggressive course in Asians. However, its exact prevalence and clinicopathologic spectrum in North India are not well documented. Materials and Methods: The study included all patients aged above 12 years with primary IgAN on kidney biopsy from January 2007 to December 2018. Clinical and pathological parameters were noted. Two histopathologists independently reviewed all kidney biopsies, and MEST-C score was assigned as per the Oxford classification. Results: IgAN was diagnosed in 681 (11.85%) out of 5751 native kidney biopsies. The mean age was 32 ± 12.3 years, and the male to female ratio was 2.5:1. At presentation, 69.8% had hypertension, 68% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 ml/min, 63.2% had microscopic hematuria, and 4.6% had gross hematuria. The mean proteinuria was 3.61 ± 2.26 g/day, with 46.8% showing nephrotic range proteinuria and 15.2% showing nephrotic syndrome manifestation. Histopathologically, 34.4% of patients had diffuse global glomerulosclerosis. Oxford MEST-C scoring revealed M1 in 67%, E1 in 23.9%, S1 in 46.9%, T1/T2 in 33%, and crescents in 19.6% of biopsies. The mean serum creatinine was significantly higher in cases with E1, T1/2, and C1/2 scores (P < 0.05). Hematuria and proteinuria were significantly higher (P < 0.05) with E1 and C1/2 scores. Coexisting C3 was associated with higher serum creatinine at presentation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: IgAN patients with late presentation and advanced disease became less amenable to immunomodulation in our cohort. The implementation of point-of-care screening strategies, early diagnosis, and retarding disease progression should be prioritized in the Indian strategy.

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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07