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Official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology
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comparative analysis of determinants and outcome of early and late acute antibody mediated rejection (ABMR)

 Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Raj K Sharma,
Director – Nephrology and Kidney Transplant, Medanta hospital, Lucknow-226030, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_375_20

Introduction: Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is one of the major determinants of graft survival. Although diagnostic precision and treatment options have improved, response to therapy and graft survival has not improved very significantly. The phenotypes of early and late acute ABMR differ in many ways. In this study, we assessed the clinical characteristics, response to therapy, DSA positivity, and outcomes of early and late ABMR. Methods: During the study period, 69 patients with acute ABMR diagnosed on renal graft histopathology were included with a median follow-up of 10 months after rejection. Recipients were stratified into early acute ABMR (<3 months of transplant; n = 29) and late acute ABMR (>3 months of transplant; n = 40). Graft survival, patient survival, response to therapy, and doubling of serum creatinine were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: Baseline characteristics and immunosuppression protocols were comparable between the early and late ABMR groups. Late acute ABMR had an increased risk of doubling of serum creatinine than the early ABMR group (P = 0.002). Graft and patient survival were not statistically different between the two groups. Response to therapy was inferior in the late acute ABMR group (P = 0.00). Pretransplant DSA was present in 27.6% in the early ABMR group. Late acute ABMR was frequently associated with nonadherence or suboptimal immunosuppression and low DSA positivity (15%). Infections such as CMV, bacterial, and fungal infections were similar in the earlier and late ABMR groups. Conclusion: Late acute ABMR group had a poor response to anti-rejection therapy and also an increased risk of doubling of serum creatinine compared to the early acute ABMR group. There was also a tendency toward increased graft loss in late acute ABMR patients. Late acute ABMR patients are more frequently associated with nonadherence/suboptimal immunosuppression. There was also a low incidence of anti-HLA DSA positivity in late ABMR.

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    -  Karthikeyan B
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Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07