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   2008| July-September  | Volume 18 | Issue 3  
    Online since November 13, 2008

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients
M Afkhami-Ardekani, M Modarresi, E Amirchaghmaghi
July-September 2008, 18(3):112-117
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43690  PMID:20142916
A cross-sectional study was performed from November 2005 to July 2007 to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and its risk factors among type 2 diabetic patients.. Two hundred and eighty-eight type 2 diabetic patients (141 males and 147 females) referred to Yazd diabetes research center were randomly recruited for the study. Microalbuminuria was detected by measuring the albumin to creatinine ratio in the early morning urine. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed if this ratio was between 30 and 300 mg/g on two occasions during three months. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was 14.2%. Chi-square analysis revealed that microalbuminuria was correlated with the diastolic blood pressure ( P = 0.003) and the duration of diabetes ( P = 0.000). No statistically significant correlation was found between microalbuminuria and age, sex, body mass index, levels of fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum triglyceride, and serum cholesterol, or systolic blood pressure. For 240 patients for whom the duration of diabetes was known from the answers in their questionnaires, logistic regression was used for analysis. Results showed that two variables including the duration of diabetes and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) play a role in this model and the following Logic association was obtained: g^ (x) = -9.233 0.079 DBP 0.114 duration according to this model, both DBP and duration of diabetes were directly correlated with microalbuminuria. Determination of the urine albumin to creatinine ratio is an easy method for screening of microalbuminuria that is suggested for all diabetic patients, especially diabetic patients with hypertension and long-term diabetes.
  12 4,575 557
REVIEW ARTICLE
Aquaporins: The renal water channels
SK Agarwal, A Gupta
July-September 2008, 18(3):95-100
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43687  PMID:20142913
Water is the most abundant molecule in any cell. Specialized membrane channel, proteins called aquaporins, facilitate water transport across cell membranes. At least seven aquaporins ( AQP ): 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 11 are expressed in the kidneys. Aquaporins play a role in both the short-term and long-term regulation of water balance as well as in the pathophysiology of water balance disorders. Aquaporin is composed of a single peptide chain consisting of approximately 270 amino acids. Inherited central and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are primarily due to the decreased expression of AQP2 while mutation in the AQP2 molecule is responsible for inherited central diabetes insipidus. In acquired causes of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, there is a downregulation of AQP2 expression in the inner medulla of the kidney. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by excessive sodium and water reabsorption, although in spite of this, patients do not develop hyponatremia. There is a marked downregulation of both AQP2 and AQP3 expression, which could be a physiologic response to extracellular water reabsorption in patients with nephrotic syndrome. There are some conditions in which aquaporin expression has been found to increase such as experimentally induced heart failure, cirrhosis, and pregnancy. Some drugs such as cisplatin and cyclosporine, also alter the expression of aquaporins. The three-pore model of peritoneal transport depicts the importance of aquaporins. Thus, the understanding of renal water channels has solved the mystery behind many water balance disorders. Further insights into the molecular structure and biology of aquaporins will help to lay a foundation for the development of future drugs.
  7 5,214 513
CASE REPORTS
Tumoral calcinosis (Teutschlander disease) in a dialysis patient
P Binnani, V Aggarwal, MM Bahadur, N Fulara
July-September 2008, 18(3):122-124
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43692  PMID:20142918
Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon and severe complication of hemodialysis therapy. It is generally associated with the presence of the high serum calcium-and-phosphorus product. We report here a case of a patient on hemodialysis who presented with progressively increasing, multiple, tumor-like, subcutaneous swellings. These are rare manifestations of extraosseous calcification in uremic patients that are termed as tumoral calcinosis. A 25 year-old male presented with multiple, nodular, painful, cutaneous swellings all over his body that had been progressively increasing over the last four years. He was a known case of chronic glumerulonephritis who was on regular hemodialysis. The patient was investigated and diagnosed as having tumoral calcinosis and was treated with a low calcium dialysate of pure reverse osmosis water.
  4 3,991 202
Leptospirosis with acute renal failure and paraparesis
P Ramakrishna, VV Sai Naresh, B Chakrapani, B Vengamma, V Siva Kumar
July-September 2008, 18(3):130-131
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43695  PMID:20142921
Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis with a worldwide distribution that is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from inapparent infection to fulminant disease. The presentation of paraparesis in combination with acute renal failure is rare.
  3 2,346 198
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Serum magnesium in recovering acute renal failure
R Satish, G Gokulnath
July-September 2008, 18(3):101-104
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43688  PMID:20142914
We studied the manifestations of hypomagnesemia in 50 patients with acute renal failure who had been admitted in our hospital over a period of ten months. All patients with serum creatine ≥ 2 mg/dL and normal baseline levels of serum calcium, magnesium, and potassium as well as normal ECG were included in the study. Patients with multi-organ failure, drug-induced acute renal failure, obstructive uropathy, and alcohol addiction were excluded. The mean age of our study population was 40 15 years, 37 of the patients were male and 13 were female. Hypomagnesemia was observed in 31 patients out of 50 during the recovery period of acute renal failure with symptomatic hypomagnesemia being seen in 23 patients. Serum magnesium levels on the day of admission and during the recovery phase were 2.11 0.38 mg/dL and 1.64 0.41 mg/dL respectively. Paresthesia, irritability, agitation, dysartharia, vertigo, and associated hypokalemia and hypocalcemia were noted in symptomatic hypomagnesemic patients. Treatment of hypomagnesaemia and hypokalemia ameliorated the symptoms. We conclude that these abnormalities produce clinically significant manifestations in recovery phase of acute renal failure and clinicians should pay attention to these.
  2 3,265 362
CASE REPORTS
Color Doppler findings of post-biopsy arteriovenous fistula in renal transplant
F Shaheen, A Hakeem, M Singh, T Gojwari, H Shafi, M Wani, S Rasool
July-September 2008, 18(3):132-133
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43696  PMID:20142922
Post biopsy arterio-venous fistula in renal transplant range in incidence from 15-16%. Spontaneous resolution of 75% A-V fistulas is seen within four weeks. We report a patient with post biopsy arterio-venous fistula who had developed unexplained hypertension with no definite feature of rejection on biopsy. Doppler application revealed an arterio-venous fistula which showed spontaneous resolution in six weeks.
  1 2,817 149
Vitamin D intoxication presenting as acute renal failure
MA Naik, KA Banday, MS Najar, AR Reshi, MA Bhat
July-September 2008, 18(3):125-126
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43693  PMID:20142919
A 70 year-old male presented with acute renal failure and mental obtundation. On examination, he was found to have hypercalcemia and on further questioning, it was found that it was secondary to injections of a slow-release vitamin D preparation. Although total body exposure is sufficient for vitamin D synthesis, increased vitamin D deficiency secondary to poor exposure to sunlight is observed in some parts of the world. We report here a case of vitamin D intoxication from the Kashmir valley where vitamin D deficiency is 100% in the general population that is confined indoors.
  1 3,942 253
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Relationship between serum leptin level and laboratory and anthropometric indices of malnutrition in patients on hemodialysis
F Ahamadi, R Bosorgmehr, E Razeghi
July-September 2008, 18(3):105-111
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43689  PMID:20142915
Protein-energy malnutrition is a major problem and one of the risk factors for mortality in hemodialysis patients. There is no single index in evaluation of nutritional status in these patients, so leptin can be used as one of the parameters. In this study, the correlation between serum leptin with biochemical and anthropometric parameters of nutrition has been evaluated. This cross-sectional study has been performed on 60 hemodialysis patients (32 males and 28 females) in 2006. The patients on hemodialysis for under 1 year and who has a history of consumption of lipid lowering agents or glucocorticoids, or an infectious or inflammatory disease were excluded. Malnutrition laboratory parameters and serum leptin were measured before hemodialysis. Serum leptin was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with direct dbc kit and malnutrition laboratory parameters measured with standard laboratory methods, patients anthropometric parameters evaluated after hemodialysis. The mean age of patients was 47.5 16.1 years and the range of serum leptin level was 0.6-64.8 ng/ml. Mean serum leptin level were 22.64 19.54 ng/ml in females and 16.74 20.16 ng/ml in males on hemodialysis and in spite of higher level of leptin in females there was not any statistically significant difference between females and males serum leptin. Absolute value of correlation coefficient between serum leptin and anthropometric parameters and most laboratory parameters was <0.25 (except ferritin, iron, phosphorous in males and total protein, hemoglobin, urea, and creatinin in females which was between 0.25 and 0.50). Our results suggest that the increased serum leptin level does not have a major role in diagnosis of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients and there is a poor correlation between malnutrition parameters and serum leptin level.
  1 3,125 276
Utility of C-2 (Cyclosporine) monitoring in postrenal transplant patients: A study in the Indian population
V Thakur, R Kumar, PN Gupta
July-September 2008, 18(3):118-121
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43691  PMID:20142917
The study was planned and conducted to assess the benefit of C-2 levels (blood cyclosporine levels two hours postdosing) monitoring over trough (C0) levels (predosing) in postrenal transplant patients. The patient population included 34 postrenal transplant individuals (28 males and six females, mean age of 39.9 12.3 years). The patients were first-transplant patients and were receiving a microemulsion form of cyclosporine A (CsA) as an immunosuppressant along with azathioprine and prednisolone. In addition, they were not on any enzyme inducer/inhibitor drugs, except for diltiazem. Timed collection of C0 and C-2 samples was done and the samples were immediately processed using the cedia cyclosporine plus assay kit. Estimation was done on a Beckman synchron CX5CE fully automated chemistry analyzer. Serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were checked. Poor graft survival was found in this population with 29.3% patients showing graft rejection .The graft rejection patients were assigned to two groups: group I with chronic graft rejection patients (17.6%) and group II with acute graft rejection patients (11.7%). Group III consisted of graft survival patients (70.7%) . Mean SD was calculated for C0 and C2 levels. Individual values for C0 and C-2 were plotted on a scatter chart. C0 and C-2 levels were normalized by calculating them as the percentage of their targets (data not shown) and compared using the Kruskal Wallis one-way analysis of variance. C0 levels in all the three groups were within the recommended therapeutic range (150-300 ng/mL) ( P < 0.182). Blood C-2 concentrations did not achieve the recommended target levels in these patients. One-way analysis of variance for C-2 values when expressed as the percentage of the target values did not show any significant difference between these groups ( P < 0.84). No significant difference was found in C0 levels between groups I, II, and group III patients when expressed as the percentage of the target values ( P < 0.182). The mean serum urea nitrogen level was 26.4 8.1 mg/dL whereas the mean serum creatinine level was 1.79 0.8 mg/dL. As is evident in the present study, the target C2 levels of cyclosporine dosage were not achieved whereas the C0 levels in all the three groups were within the optimum therapeutic range. As the incidence of graft dysfunction was also proportionately high, the importance of C2 monitoring is further highlighted on the basis of this study The contributory factors for levels lower than the target levels, such as the use of low doses of cyclosporine and interacting drugs should be carefully monitored in clinical practice. The achievement of optimum levels of C-2 may help in reducing the higher incidence of graft rejection in these patients. This practice is of equal importance in reducing cyclosporine-related renal toxicity, a rather irreversible process.
  1 2,836 199
CASE REPORTS
Recurrent hemolytic uremic syndrome
G Lakshminarayana, R Rajesh, A Jojo, G Kurian, VN Unni
July-September 2008, 18(3):127-129
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43694  PMID:20142920
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is an uncommon cause of acute renal failure. Diarrhea-associated (D+) HUS, usually seen in children, is a common variety of HUS. HUS that is not associated with diarrhea (D-) is caused by a heterogeneous group of disorders. We report here a case of recurrent HUS (D-) in an adult female with hypocomplementemia.
  - 2,445 214
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY
The veiled right kidney sign
AY Lakshmi, B Vijaya Lakshmi, S Sarala, B Mutteswaraiah
July-September 2008, 18(3):134-134
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43697  PMID:20142923
  - 1,731 135
SPECIAL FEATURE
The declaration of Istanbul on organ trafficking and transplant tourism

July-September 2008, 18(3):135-140
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.43686  PMID:20142924
  - 1,939 181
Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07