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   2010| April-June  | Volume 20 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 9, 2010

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Complete remission of lambda light chain myeloma presenting with acute renal failure following treatment with bortezomib and steroids
M Pavan, KA Ashwini, R Ravi, LH Suratkal
April-June 2010, 20(2):94-96
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65304  PMID:20835325
About one in five people with multiple myeloma produce only light chains. Patients with lambda light chain disease have a three times worse prognosis than kappa light chain disease. We report a case of lambda light chain deposition disease in a 35-year-old female who presented with acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. She had complete recovery and is now in complete remission following treatment with bortezomib and steroids.
  9,433 210 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Percutaneous nephrostomy by direct puncture technique: An observational study
R Karim, S Sengupta, S Samanta, RK Aich, U Das, P Deb
April-June 2010, 20(2):84-88
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65301  PMID:20835322
Percutaneous nephrostomy is the procedure of establishing a temporary drainage tract of the renal pelvi-calyceal system through the skin. This study aims to find out whether low cost trocar catheter can be a suitable substitute for the relatively high cost fluoroscopy/ultrasonography guided tract dilatation and tube insertion procedure. Percutaneous nephrostomy by the trocar catheter was performed in 126 patients. Under local anesthesia, a stab wound deep enough to traverse the muscle layer was made through which the trocar - catheter drainage set was inserted under ultrasonography guidance. About 179 procedures were performed in 126 patients. Primary technical success rate was 94%, major complication rate 1.6%, minor complication rate 11% and catheter related complications like catheter blockage or dislodgement were 13%. There was no procedure related mortality in our series. The ultrasonography-guided trocar, catheter nephrostomy, is a quick, safe and low cost procedure in selected cases of upper urinary tract obstruction. The primary technical success and complication rates are comparable to any other reported procedure and its low cost is particularly suitable for developing countries like India.
  6,252 226 9
REVIEW ARTICLE
Can we reduce the cardiovascular risk in peritoneal dialysis patients?
YW Chiu, R Mehrotra
April-June 2010, 20(2):59-67
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65296  PMID:20835317
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), including those treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), have a high risk for death, particularly from cardiovascular (CV) causes. Traditional risk factors for CV disease - like hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia - are highly prevalent, often severe, and more difficult to treat in dialysis patients. Development of strategies for CV risk reduction in dialysis patients is complicated by epidemiologic studies that demonstrate paradoxical associations of some of the traditional risk factors with mortality. The difficulty is enhanced by either a paucity or negative findings of studies that have tested risk modification by targeting traditional CV risk factors. It is also clear that neither the prevalence nor the severity of traditional risk factors explains the substantial increase in risk for death associated with ESRD; this has led to identification of several non-traditional risk factors. Among these, systemic inflammation, disordered mineral metabolism, and long-term CV risk from infectious complications appear the most promising. However, the evidence in favor of the importance of these risk factors is largely limited to observational studies. In this review, we present a critical analysis of the literature to assist the clinician to reduce the CV risk of ESRD patients treated with PD.
  5,368 434 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical and laboratory findings and therapeutic responses in children with nephrotic syndrome
A.A.S.L Safaei, S Maleknejad
April-June 2010, 20(2):68-71
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65297  PMID:20835318
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical entity characterized by massive loss of urinary protein leading to hypoproteinemia and edema. This prospective cross sectional study was performed on 44 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). The objectives were to study the clinical and biochemical parameters at the time of diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome and to study the histopathological distribution of different subtypes of INS and drug response pattern. There were 29 (66%) males and 15 females (34%). The mean age of NS was 4.87±3.24 years. Facial edema was found in 42 (95%), microscopic hematuria in 10 (23%), gross hematuria in 2 (4.5%), and hypertension in 5 (11.2%) of patients. In 17 children who underwent biopsy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the most common pathologic finding (41%). Other subtypes included minimal change in three (18%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in 1(5.8%), diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis in 2 (11.6%), membranous glomerulonephritis in 1 (5.8%), and diffuse mesangial proliferation in 3 (17.5%) of cases. At the time of hospital admission, peritonitis were present in five (11.4%), pneumonia and upper respiratory infection (sinusitis) in eight (18%), cellulitis in two (4.5%). Among 44 children with NS, 29 (66%) were steroid sensitive cases, nine (20.5%) were steroid resistant and six (13.5%) were steroid dependent. Among patients with steroid sensitive NS, 37% were without relapsers, 38.8% frequent relapsers and 26.4% were infrequent relapsers. These results suggest that there are differences between season of incidence, response to treatment with corticosteroid and pathologic findings in our study and other studies in Iran and other countries.
  5,106 304 4
A follow-up study of children with posterior urethral valve
S Uthup, R Binitha, S Geetha, R Hema, L Kailas
April-June 2010, 20(2):72-75
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65298  PMID:20835319
There are not many studies on long term follow up of children following surgery for posterior urethral valve in India. This study was done to assess the growth and renal function of children who had completed five years after surgery for posterior urethral valve at our hospital. Thirty children were included in this study. They were assessed retrospectively for the age and pattern of presentation, time of surgery and outcome. Outcomes measured were stunting, renal failure (GFR, tubular functions) and bladder functions. Fifty per cent of children were symptomatic five years after surgery with enuresis, dribbling, polyuria and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). GFR was <60 ml/m/1.73 m 2 in 33%. Growth failure, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, was present in one-third of children. A low GFR was associated with growth failure. Poor bladder function evidenced by history of dribbling and significant residual urine was seen in one-third of patients. Residual hydronephrosis was seen in 74%. The most common presenting symptoms of PUV were poor urinary stream followed by recurrent UTI, poor weight gain, renal failure and abdominal mass. Eighty per cent of the study population had undergone surgery in infancy. Five years after surgery, 50% children were symptomatic; 30% had stunting. 33% had a GFR <60 ml/m/1.73 m 2 and a significantly greater degree of stunting than those with GFR >60 ml/m/1.73 m 2 . Sonologically normal kidneys on follow-up were associated with a GFR above 60 ml/m/1.73 m 2 . Poor bladder function was present in 30% of the children. Univariate analysis showed that statistically significant risk factors for decline in GFR in this study are oligohydramnios and surgery beyond the neonatal period.
  4,073 322 6
Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy: A Libyan experience
A Mishra, R Tarsin, B ElHabbash, N Zagan, R Markus, S Drebeka, K AbdElmola, T Shawish, A Shebani, T AbdElmola, A ElUsta, EF Ehtuish
April-June 2010, 20(2):76-79
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65299  PMID:20835320
This study was done to assess the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB), to ascertain the risk factors for complications and determine the optimal period of observation. The radiologist (A.M.) at the National Organ Transplant Centre, Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, performed 86 PRBs between February 1, 2006, and January 31, 2008, using an automated biopsy gun with 16-gauge needle. Coagulation profile was done in all the patients. All patients were kept on strict bed rest for six hours post-procedure. Eighty six renal biopsies were performed on 78 patients referred from rheumatology department and eight post-kidney transplant recipients; 23 were males with age range 15 - 56 years and 63 females with age range 16 - 66 years. A mean of 17.5 glomeruli were present in each specimen. A glomerular yield of less than five glomeruli was seen in four biopsies. Class I lupus nephritis (LN) was seen in 1 patient, class II lupus nephritis in 7 patients, class III LN in 13 patients and class IV LN in 29 patients. All the eight renal allografts were diagnosed as acute tubular necrosis or acute interstitial rejection. The risk of post-biopsy bleeding was higher in women, older patients and higher PTT. The overall complication rate was 5.8%. Three complications were observed within six hours of biopsy. No late complication was seen. PRB under real-time ultrasound-guidance is a safe and efficacious procedure to establish the histological diagnosis and should be done as out-patient procedure. Observation time of six hours post-biopsy is optimal.
  3,513 210 3
CASE REPORTS
Tubulointerstitial nephritis with uveitis syndrome: A case report and review of literature
S Parameswaran, N Mittal, K Joshi, M Rathi, HS Kohli, V Jha, KL Gupta, V Sakhuja
April-June 2010, 20(2):103-105
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65307  PMID:20835328
Tubulointerstitial nephritis with uveitis (TINU) syndrome is an unusual and under diagnosed cause of acute interstitial nephritis. The interstitial nephritis may precede, follow or develop concurrent to the uveitis. About 200 cases have been reported worldwide with only a single case reported from India. We report a 16-year-old male with TINU syndrome.
  3,426 196 1
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CONFERENCE
A young boy with malignant hypertension and intracranial bleed

April-June 2010, 20(2):106-113
PMID:20835329
  3,170 216 -
CASE REPORTS
Norwegian scabies in a renal transplant patient
K Sampathkumar, AR Mahaldar, M Ramakrishnan, S Prabahar
April-June 2010, 20(2):89-91
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65302  PMID:20835323
A variety of skin infections are encountered in postrenal transplant setting. Though bacterial and fungal infections are more common, surprises are in store for us sometimes. We describe a patient who underwent renal transplant two years ago, presenting with a painless, mildly pruritic expanding skin rash over abdomen. Histological examination of the skin biopsy showed that stratum corneum had multiple burrows containing larvae and eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient was treated with ivermectin 12 mg weekly once for 2 doses along with topical 5% permethrin and permethrin soap bath. There was remarkable improvement in the skin lesions with complete resolution in two weeks. Norwegian or crusted scabies is caused by massive infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. It can be rarely encountered in the post-transplant setting, which underscores the importance of early diagnosis and treatment before secondary bacterial infection sets in.
  3,174 148 7
Renal replacement lipomatosis: A rare type of renal pseudotumor
NA Choh, M Jehangir, SA Choh
April-June 2010, 20(2):92-93
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65303  PMID:20835324
Replacement lipomatosis of the kidney is the end result of severe atrophy of renal parenchyma with secondary marked proliferation of renal sinus and perirenal fatty tissue. Although ultrasonography may suggest the diagnosis, CT demonstrated the distinctive features most accurately. We report a case of renal replacement lipomatosis with coexistent xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and multiple perinephric and parietal wall collections.
  3,096 146 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effectiveness of aminophylline prophylaxis of renal impairment after coronary angiography in patients with chronic renal insufficiency
A Rohani
April-June 2010, 20(2):80-83
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65300  PMID:20835321
This study was done to investigate whether aminophylline reduces the incidence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) after coronary angioplasty. Sixty patients who had serum creatinine concentration of > 1.3 mg/dl randomly received 250 mg IV aminophylline or placebo 30 minutes before coronary angiography. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were determined immediately before (base line) and at 24 and 48 hours after administration of contrast medium. The primary end point was the incidence of CIN. The incidence of CIN was 20% in placebo group and 13.3% in aminophylline group; older age was significantly associated with CIN: In this study, we could not demonstrate the prophylactic effect of a single infusion of 250 mg aminophylline, 30 minutes before administration of contrast media. A larger trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes is required to more adequately assess the role for aminophylline in CIN prevention.
  2,988 169 5
CASE REPORTS
Marginal donor kidney in a marginal recipient: Five year follow-up
MM Bahadur, P Binnani, R Gupta, S Pattewar
April-June 2010, 20(2):100-102
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65306  PMID:20835327
The widening gap between demand and supply of organs became apparent as organ shortage became more severe. Organs previously considered unsuitable for transplantation are currently being used. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary disease characterized by slow progressive cystic changes and deterioration of renal function. We provide our experience with an ADPKD patient who received a kidney from 38-year-old deceased donor ADPKD-affected kidney for renal transplantation.
  2,589 118 2
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY
Unilateral renal cystic disease
NA Choh, M Rashid
April-June 2010, 20(2):116-117
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65310  PMID:20835331
  2,489 136 2
CASE REPORTS
Looking beyond the obvious: IgA nephropathy in a liver transplant recipient
PM Kar, D Yi, SM Kar
April-June 2010, 20(2):97-99
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65305  PMID:20835326
Seventeen years after a liver transplant for biliary atresia, an adolescent presented with renal failure. The serum level of cyclosporine was sub-therapeutic; and, in spite of dosage adjustments, the patient's status did not improve. Given the patient's age, future renal transplant was a feasible consideration. However, this warranted investigation in the form of a renal biopsy in an attempt to confirm the underlying cause(s) of her renal failure. The renal biopsy revealed marked alteration in the renal anatomy due to IgA deposition, interstitial fibrosis, and hyaline arteriopathy.
  2,446 112 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Approach to urinary tract infections
S Aggarwal, H Singh
April-June 2010, 20(2):118-118
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65311  PMID:20835333
  1,891 215 -
Prevalence of lower urinary tract infection in South Indian type 2 diabetic subjects
J Janifer, S Geethalakshmi, K Satyavani, V Viswanathan
April-June 2010, 20(2):120-120
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65315  PMID:20835336
  1,924 154 -
Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism in type 2 diabetics with nephropathy
V.V.S. Naresh, A.L.K. Reddy, G Sivaramakrishna, P.V.G.K. Sarma, RV Vardhan, VS Kumar
April-June 2010, 20(2):119-119
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65314  PMID:20835335
  1,853 115 -
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY
Bilateral renal lymphangioma - An incidental finding
S Magu, S Agarwal, SK Dalaal
April-June 2010, 20(2):114-115
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65309  PMID:20835330
  1,774 125 2
LETTERS TO EDITOR
ACE polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy
V Wiwanitkit
April-June 2010, 20(2):118-119
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.65313  PMID:20835332
  1,624 131 -
Author's Reply
MS Najar, CL Saldanha, KA Banday
April-June 2010, 20(2):118-118
PMID:20835334
  1,315 73 -
Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07