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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2010| October-December  | Volume 20 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 1, 2010

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Post-transplant infections: An ounce of prevention
V Jha
October-December 2010, 20(4):171-178
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73431  PMID:21206677
Infections are the leading cause of hospitalization in transplant recipients. The increased risk of new onset diabetes after transplantation, cardiovascular disease, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders adversely affects allograft outcomes. Risk is determined by epidemiologic exposure, immunosuppressive therapy and prophylaxis. The predictable sequence of appearance of infections helps in making management decisions. High likelihood of infections with unusual and multiple organisms necessitates aggressive use of imaging techniques and invasive procedures. Serologic tests depend upon antibody response and are unreliable. Nucleic acid based assays are sensitive, rapid, and allow detection of subclinical infection and assessment of response to therapy. Preventive steps include screening of donors and recipients and vaccination. All indicated vaccines should be administered before transplantation. Inactivated vaccines can be administered after transplantation but produce weak and transient antibody response. Boosters may be required once antibody titers wane. Post-transplant chemoprophylaxis includes cotrimoxazole for preventing urinary tract infections, pneumocystis and Nocardia infections; ganciclovir, valganciclovir, or acyclovir for cytomegalovirus related complications in at-risk recipients; and lamivudine for prevention of progressive liver disease in HBsAg positive recipients. Viral load monitoring and pre-emptive treatment is used for BK virus infection. Infection with new organisms has recently been reported, mostly due to inadvertent transmission via the donor organ.
  20 7,716 811
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of aerobic exercise and resistance training on lipid profiles and inflammation status in patients on maintenance hemodialysis
R Afshar, L Shegarfy, N Shavandi, S Sanavi
October-December 2010, 20(4):185-189
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73442  PMID:21206679
Physical function limitation is a common disorder in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, relating to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic and resistance trainings on blood lipids and inflammation status in HD patients. Out of 30 volunteer males who had been undergoing conventional maintenance HD within an HD unit in Tehran, 21 subjects were enrolled. They were randomly assigned into aerobic exercise group - resistance training group undergoing an 8-week intradialytic exercise program (three times/week) and control group (n = 7, each). Training program consisted of 10-30 min stationary cycling at an intensity of 12-16 out of 20 at the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of Borg scale in aerobic group and using ankle weights for knee extension, hip abduction and flexions at an intensity of 15-17 out of 20 at the RPE of Borg scale in resistance group. Fasting blood samples for serum biochemistry were drawn at baseline and 8 weeks. The age, HD duration, and physical activity score were 51.6±18.9yrs; 25.1±13.9 mo, and 19.2±7.6, respectively. Diabetes mellitus (43%), hypertension (28%), and obstructive uropathy (14%) were the most common underlying diseases. Aerobic and resistance exercises were correlated with serum creatinine ( P < 0.0001 and P <0.001) and hs-CRP levels ( P =0.005 and P =0.036) reduction so that aerobic exercise induced more reduction. These exercises had no influence on weight, Kt/V values, serum urea, albumin, hemoglobin, and lipid levels ( P >0.05). Both intradialytic aerobic and resistance exercises showed beneficial effects on inflammation status without any influences on serum lipid levels probably due to short duration of the study which was not accompanied with body weight changes. Solute removal had no change during exercise programs. There is a need for more investigation on the role of exercise in HD patients.
  10 6,446 411
Development of practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt
A. M. A Ahmed, Mohd. F Allam, ES Habil, AM Metwally, NA Ibrahiem, M Radwan, MM El-Gaafary, A Afifi, MA Gadallah
October-December 2010, 20(4):193-202
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73450  PMID:21206681
Although hemodialysis is the main modaility of treatment of end-stage renal disease, no practice guidelines are available in Egypt. Applying international guidelines for hemodialysis would not be suitable or feasible, because of different health system and lack of resources. The aim of this project was the development of evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt. The Egyptian guidelines were adopted from the standards developed by The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta (Canada), The National Kidney Foundation (USA), The Clinical Standards Board for Scotland (Scotland), and The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (Canada). In addition, the guidelines published in Oxford Handbook of Dialysis were reviewed. Thereafter, a panel of Egyptian experts in the field of nephrology and hemodialysis was selected and invited to participate in this project. The Delphi technique was applied to build up the consensus among the experts on the formulated guidelines. The final version of the Egyptian Hemodialysis Practice Guidelines included five main sections; personnel, patient care practices, infection prevention and control, facility, and documentation/records. A consensus on practice guidelines for hemodialysis has been successfully produced and is supported by levels of evidence. The 12 Egyptian experts who participated in the Delphi technique and the reviewers assured the completeness and acceptability of the developed practice guidelines. Also, including experts from the university hospitals together with the Directorates of Cairo and Giza Health Affairs of the Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) avoided conflicts between clinical recommendations and feasible application in the MOH hemodialysis facilities.
  10 5,777 299
Long-term survival of living donor renal transplants: A single center study
J Hassanzadeh, AA Hashiani, A Rajaeefard, H Salahi, E Khedmati, F Kakaei, S Nikeghbalian, A Malek-Hossein
October-December 2010, 20(4):179-184
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73439  PMID:21206678
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to determine the ten-year graft survival rate of renal transplantation in patients who have been transplanted from live donors. This is a historical cohort study designed to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation from live donor during a 10-year period (from March 1999 to March 2009) on 843 patients receiving kidney transplant in the transplantation center of Namazi hospital in Shiraz, Iran. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the survival rate, log-rank test was used to compare survival curves, and Cox proportional hazard model was used to multivariate analysis. Mean follow-up was 53.07 ± 34.61 months. Allograft survival rates at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years were 98.3, 96.4, 92.5, 90.8, and 89.2%, respectively. Using Cox proportional hazard model, the age and gender of the donors along with the creatinine level of the patients at discharge were shown to have a significant influence on survival. The 10-year graft survival rate of renal transplantation from living donor in this center is 89.2%, and graft survival rate in our cohort is satisfactory and comparable with reports from large centers in the world.
  8 4,023 299
CASE REPORTS
Emphysematous polycystic renal infection
YS Sooraj, GK Nainan, F Joseph, P Thara
October-December 2010, 20(4):205-206
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73457  PMID:21206683
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the commonest hereditary disorders. Urinary tract infection is a common complication of this disease. However emphysematous infections in ADPKD have seldom been reported. We report a case of emphysematous polycystic renal infection with Gram negative (Escherichia coli) septicemia in a nondiabetic patient with ADPKD who succumbed to his illness despite aggressive management including early nephrectomy.
  4 2,315 87
Chryseobacterium meningosepticum bacteremia in diabetic nephropathy patient on hemodialysis
M Dias, K Prashant, R Pai, B Scaria
October-December 2010, 20(4):203-204
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73460  PMID:21206682
The Chryseobacterium species are inhabitants of soil and water. In the hospital environment, they exist in water systems and wet surfaces. We report here a case of Chryseobacterium meningosepticum bacteremia in a diabetic nephropathy patient on hemodialysis. He was successfully treated with Vancomycin and ceftazidime for three weeks with good clinical outcome. This is the first case reported in dialysis patients from India.
  3 2,153 118
LETTER TO EDITOR
Urinary tract infection in diabetic patients
Ramen Kr. Baishya, A Mathew, DR Dhawan, MR Desai
October-December 2010, 20(4):222-222
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73429  PMID:21206689
  3 1,913 158
CASE REPORTS
Childhood Bartter's syndrome: An Indian case series
K Sampathkumar, U Muralidharan, A Kannan, M Ramakrishnan, R Ajeshkumar
October-December 2010, 20(4):207-210
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73455  PMID:21206684
This is a retrospective analysis of children diagnosed with Bartter's syndrome (BS) between 2001 and 2009 in our hospital. Seven children (six males) were diagnosed with BS. The mean age at presentation was 6.5 ± 4.9 months. The presenting features were failure to thrive,vomiting, polyuria, and dehydration. All children were normotensive at admission. The children exhibited alkalemia (pH, 7.58 ± 0.03), hypokalemia (serum potassium, 2.62 ± 0.47 mEq/l), hypochloremia (serum chloride, 82.83 + 16.7 mEq/l), and hyponatremia (serum sodium, 126.85 ± 3.56 mEq/l). Disproportionate urinary wasting of sodium, potassium, and chloride were seen. The diagnosis was confirmed by elevated serum levels of both renin and aldosterone with normotension. Indomethacin or ibuprofen therapy resulted in marked improvement in general condition of these children. In conclusion, a high index of suspicion should be entertained in children with failure to thrive to diagnose BS. Therapy with NSAIDs leads to marked improvement in the general well being.
  2 4,505 172
Collapsing glomerulopathy in an HIV-positive patient in a low-incidence belt
I Naaz, R Wani, MS Najar, K Banday, KM Baba, H Jeelani
October-December 2010, 20(4):211-213
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73451  PMID:21206685
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) involves glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular compartments of the kidney. The most common glomerular lesion is HIV-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and related mesangiopathies collectively termed HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). A variety of immune-complex mediated glomerular diseases such as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), IgA nephropathy, and lupus-like glomerulonephritis also occur. HIVAN is restricted to patients presenting with proteinuria and progressive reduction of renal function and with distinctive but not pathognomonic pathology (FSGS often coexisting with glomerular collapse and tubular microcystic dilatations). The worldwide incidence of collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) in HIV-positive patients is high in Americans. But in India and other Asian countries, other forms of kidney diseases are more commonly seen. We report the first case of CG in the state of Jammu and Kashmir which also happens to be a very low incidence belt for HIV.
  2 2,276 85
Chronic kidney disease in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome
MM Wani, SA Mir
October-December 2010, 20(4):214-216
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73447  PMID:21206686
Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by either absence or abnormalities of the mullerian structures. It is a rare disorder, resulting in complete or partial agenesis of the uterus and cervix and primary amenorrhea. It may rarely be associated with anomalies of the urinary tract, ovaries and skeleton. Renal failure secondary to chronic tubulo-interstitial disease has been reported. We report a case of MRKH syndrome presenting late with chronic kidney disease.
  2 4,208 105
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY
A rare congenital anomaly of urinary bladder - "Bladder ears"
G Lakshminarayana, A Mathew, R Rajesh, G Kurien, VN Unni
October-December 2010, 20(4):220-221
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73440  PMID:21206688
  2 3,923 113
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ten year experience of pediatric kidney biopsies from a single center in Pakistan
A Absar, M Diamond, Y Sonia, R Arshalooz, A Safia, K Waqar, P Shahid
October-December 2010, 20(4):190-192
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73446  PMID:21206680
There are many established registries of kidney biopsies around the world. In addition, there are several reports available in literature from many countries on pediatric kidney biopsy. This study was done to determine the indications and pathological patterns of kidney biopsies of children referred to our hospital, and compare our data with the data available from other countries. This is a cross-sectional study of pediatric kidney biopsies over a 10-year period, from January 1997 to December 2006. All biopsies were done in Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Age range was from 1 to 14 years. Data were analyzed for indications and histopathological diagnosis. A total of 54 kidney biopsies were included in the initial analysis. Here 13 samples were excluded and final analysis was done on the remaining 41 samples. The most common indication of kidney biopsy was nephrotic syndrome in 25 samples (61%). The most common histopathology was minimal change disease in 15 (37%), followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 5 (12%) of the biopsies.
  2 2,477 167
CASE REPORTS
Recurrent acute renal failure
S Satish, R Rajesh, G Kurian, NV Seethalekshmi, M Unni, VN Unni
October-December 2010, 20(4):217-219
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73444  PMID:21206687
While acute renal failure secondary to intravascular hemolysis is well described in hemolytic anemias, recurrent acute renal failure as the presenting manifestation of a hemolytic anemia is rare. We report a patient with recurrent acute renal failure who was found to have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), on evaluation.
  - 3,310 168
LETTER TO EDITOR
Spectrum of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Iran: A single center study
SA Zaki, P Shanbag
October-December 2010, 20(4):222-223
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73432  PMID:21206690
  - 1,186 82
Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and influence of ACE inhibition
Q Arman
October-December 2010, 20(4):223-223
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73433  PMID:21206692
  - 1,201 76
Onion-cadmium-renal function: Relationship?
V Wiwanitkit
October-December 2010, 20(4):223-224
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73434  PMID:21206691
  - 1,127 55
Tuberculosis in renal transplant recipient
P Kalita, C Phukan, S Ali, AK Barman
October-December 2010, 20(4):224-224
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.73436  PMID:21206694
  - 1,377 113
Authors' reply
P Sreejith, V Jha, HS Kohli, M Rathi, KL Gupta, V Sakhuja
October-December 2010, 20(4):224-225
PMID:21206693
  - 1,590 64
Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07