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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| May-June  | Volume 22 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 20, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of short-term intravenous ascorbic acid on reducing ferritin in hemodialysis patients
M Jalalzadeh, E Shekari, F Mirzamohammadi, MH Ghadiani
May-June 2012, 22(3):168-173
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.86407  PMID:23087549
Resistance to recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) in hemodialysis patients may be due to inadequate iron recruitment and defect in iron use. In this cross over randomized clinical trial, 30 hemodialysis patients with serum ferritin levels of ≥500 ng/ml, hemoglobin ≤11.0 g/dl, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) of 20% or less were administrated intravenous iron (50-100 mg/wk) and rEPO (120-360 U/kg/wk) for 6 months. Patients were excluded if there was a clear explanation for rEPO hyporesponsiveness. Patients were divided into two groups. Group1 received standard care and 500 mg of intravenous ascorbic acid (IVAA) with each dialysis session in the first week of each month for a total of 3 months. Group 2 received standard care only. After 2 month washout period, groups were crossed over. Each month hemoglobin (Hb) was assessed. Iron, TIBC (transferrin iron binding capacity), TSAT, iPTH (intact parathyroid hormone), liver enzymes, albumin and cholesterol levels were measured every 3 months. After 3 months of intervention, Hb significantly increased from 10.11 to 12.19 g/dl (P <0 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-1.4) and TSAT increased from 18.9 to 28.1% (P = 0.008; 95% CI 0.09-3), while ferritin and serum iron declined significantly from 1391 to 938 ng/ml (P = 0.001; 95% CI 216-689), 97.2 to 64.6 (P = 0.001; 95% CI 14.8-50.4) in the study group. Change of Hb over time in IVAA group was significant (P < 0.0005). There were significant differences between two groups in change of Hb level over time (P < 0.0005) and treatment effect (P = 0.002). Baseline laboratory tests were similar in the two groups and there was no carry over effect at phase 2. We showed that low amount of IVAA could reduce ferritin level and enhance Hb and TSAT, suggesting improved iron utilization.
  3 3,448 221
REVIEW ARTICLE
The kidney in pregnancy: A journey of three decades
J Prakash
May-June 2012, 22(3):159-167
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98750  PMID:23087548
The spectrum of kidney disease occurring during pregnancy includes preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and renal cortical necrosis (RCN). Preeclampsia affects approximately 3-5% of pregnancies. We observed preeclampsia in 5.8% of pregnancies, and 2.38% of our preeclamptic women developed eclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and the eclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes levels, and low platelets count (HELLP) syndrome accounted for about 40% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in 38.3% of the cases. Preeclampsia was the most common (91.7%) cause of hypertension during pregnancy, and chronic hypertension was present in 8.3% of patients. We observed urinary tract infection (UTI) in 9% of pregnancies. Sepsis resulting from pyelonephritis can progress to endotoxic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and AKI. The incidence of premature delivery and low birth weight is higher in women with UTI. The incidence of AKI in pregnancy with respect to total ARF cases has decreased over the last 30 years from 25% in 1980s to 5% in 2000s. Septic abortion-related ARF decreased from 9% to 3%. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are key to eliminate abortion-associated ARF in early pregnancy. The two most common causes of ARF in third trimester and postpartum periods were puerperal sepsis and preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were rare causes of ARF. Despite decreasing incidence, AKI remains a serious complication during pregnancy.
  3 8,625 1,066
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of niacin on serum phosphorus levels in dialysis patients
M Edalat-Nejad, F Zameni, A Talaiei
May-June 2012, 22(3):174-178
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98751  PMID:23087550
Hyperphosphatemia is common in patients with end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have shown that niacinamide and niacin achieve clinically significant reductions in serum phosphate in patients undergoing dialysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum phosphorus lowering effect of niacin in long-term hemodialysis patients. In this 8-week randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 37 patients were assigned to niacin or placebo with titration from 400 to 1000 mg daily. A 2-week washout preceded the switch from niacin to placebo or vice versa. The mean dose of niacin at the end of the 8-week treatment period was 750±200 mg/day. Serum phosphorus decreased from 6.66±1.40 to 5.96±0.87 mg/dL (P = 0.006) in the niacin-treated group after 8-weeks. However, the main reduction occurred at the beginning of study and seems not to be related to the phosphate-lowering effect of drug. In spite of a sharp increase in phosphorus level between w6 and w8 in patients on placebo, phosphorus values in drug-treated group showed nearly steady trend, presumably due to the inhibitory effect of niacin on phosphate absorption from gut. Niacin also increased the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.018). Our study suggests that niacin should be considered as adjunctive therapy for patients with hyperphosphatemia despite management with phosphate binders. The modest increase in HDL values may be another beneficial effect of this treatment.
  2 3,235 248
Comparison of serum creatinine and spot urine interleukin-18 levels following radiocontrast administration
F Turkmen, G Isitmangil, I Berber, G Arslan, C Sevinc, A Ozdemir
May-June 2012, 22(3):196-199
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98756  PMID:23087555
Radiocontrast administration is an important cause of acute renal failure. In this study, compared the plasma creatinine levels with spot urine IL-18 levels following radiocontrast administration. Twenty patients (11 males, 9 females) underwent radiocontrast diagnostic and therapeutic-enhanced examinations. The RIN Mehran risk score was low (≤5). The radiocontrast agents used were 623 mg/mL Iopromid (1.5 mL/kg), and 100 mL of 650 mg/mL meglumine diatrizoate as three-way oral and rectal contrast material for abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, creatinine clearance, and spot urine IL-18 levels were analyzed before and repeated at 24, 48, and 72 h after radiocontrast administration. Six and 24-h urinary IL-18 levels were measured with a human IL-18 ELISA kit following radiocontrast administration. An increase in plasma creatinine 24 and 48 h following radiocontrast administration was observed compared with precontrast values, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.052 and P=0.285, respectively). A statistically significant increase in IL-18 levels was observed at 6 and 24 h, compared with precontrast values (P=0.048 and P=0.028, respectively). A tendency for postcontrast 24-h urinary IL-18 levels to increase was observed compared with 6 h, but the increase was not statistically significant (P=0.808). Our results show that plasma creatinine starts to increase at 24 th hour; however, spot urine IL-18 levels go up at 6 th hour following radiocontrast administration implying urine IL-18 to be an earlier parameter for kidney injury.
  2 1,852 126
Sevelamer carbonate experience in Indian end stage renal disease patients
G Abraham, V Kher, S Saxena, M Jayakumar, D Chafekar, P Pargaonkar, M Shetty, Y. N. V Reddy, Y. N. V Reddy
May-June 2012, 22(3):189-192
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98754  PMID:23087553
This open label, multicentric, comparative clinical trial was done to compare the efficacy and tolerability of two sevelamer formulations, sevelamer carbonate, and sevelamer hydrochloride, in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in Indian end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. A total of 97 ESRD patients on hemodialysis, were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either sevelamer carbonate or sevelamer hydrochloride. All patients were evaluated every week for 6 weeks for efficacy and safety variables. Total 88 patients completed the study. After 6 weeks of therapy, there were similar reductions (P<0.0001) in mean serum phosphorus and the CaxP product both the groups. The responder rates for test and reference groups were 75%, 68.18% respectively (P=0.3474). The adverse events reported were nausea, abdominal pain/discomfort, heartburn, constipation, diarrhea, increased prothrombin time, and severe arthritis. No serious adverse events were reported. There was no significant difference between the groups for adverse events and the laboratory parameters. From the results of this multicentric, comparative, randomized clinical study on sevelamer carbonate we can recommend that sevelamer carbonate may be used as a phosphate binder in Indian chronic kidney disease patients.
  2 3,030 200
CASE REPORTS
Light chain deposition disease in a postrenal transplant patient
N Mittal, R Bansal, R Nada, R Minz, M Minz, K Joshi
May-June 2012, 22(3):221-223
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98768  PMID:23087561
The morphological spectrum of light chain deposition disease (LCDD) may range from normal glomerular morphology to mesangio-proliferative to mesangio-capillary to nodular sclerosing patterns. Due to the inconsistencies regarding treatment and the universally poor graft outcome of post-transplant LCDD, it is imperative to maintain a high index of suspicion and perform relevant investigations for clinching this diagnosis. A 40-year-old lady was diagnosed as a case of membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis 3 years back, for which she underwent a live unrelated renal allograft transplant. Postoperative period was complicated by an acute rise in serum creatinine on the 21 st postoperative day. Biopsy showed patchy acute cortical necrosis, which responded to conservative management. The present admission was for renal failure and subnephrotic proteinuria. A kidney biopsy was performed, and all the 14 glomeruli examined showed a mesangiocapillary pattern of glomerular injury with cellular nodule formation in some. The nodules were PAS and Congo red negative. Immunofluorescence showed glomerular and tubular basement staining for Kappa light chains only. Electron microscopy showed the characteristic granular deposits in subendothelial location in the glomerulus, and in tubular basement membranes, thus confirming the diagnosis of LCDD. Membranoproliferative pattern of glomerular injury in the pre- and posttransplant setting has a wide range of differential diagnoses; LCDD being one of them.
  1 2,094 64
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Post-transplant infections
PR Shah, VB Kute, MR Gumber, HV Patel, AV Vanikar, HL Trivedi
May-June 2012, 22(3):228-229
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98775  PMID:23087564
  1 2,097 105
Deceased donor organ transplantation: A good start for a promising future
B Einollahi
May-June 2012, 22(3):232-233
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98791  PMID:23087569
  1 1,027 57
Renal allograft pathology with C4d immunostaining in patients with graft dysfunction
M Mubarak
May-June 2012, 22(3):233-234
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98793  PMID:23087570
  1 1,279 53
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of renal function between normal-weight and overweight children
B Falakaflaki, S Mazloomzadeh, A Moradzade
May-June 2012, 22(3):193-195
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98755  PMID:23087554
Obesity in children is associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, colon cancer, and kidney disease. Most of the studies that evaluate the association between obesity and kidney disease have been done in adults. This study was planned to compare renal function between normal-weight and overweight children. In this case-control study, 92 children (45 boys, 47 girls) aged 7-12 years were included in the analysis. 46 children (23 boys, 23 girls) with BMI 85 th percentile or greater (mean age, 9.09 years) were compared with 46 controls (22 boys, 24 girls) with BMI 5 th -84 th percentile (mean age, 8.63 years). Blood and urine sample were taken from case and control groups. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio and urine calcium/creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined. Children in the overweight and control groups were matched according to age and sex. Glomerular filtration rate, urine calcium/creatinine ratio, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, blood pressure, and serum creatinine were compared between normal-weight and overweight children. Our finding showed no significant difference regarding GFR, albuminuria, calciuria, blood pressure, and serum creatinine between normal-weight and overweight children.
  1 2,033 162
Effect of reuse of polysulfone membrane on oxidative stress during hemodialysis
P Ramakrishna, E Prabhakar Reddy, MM Suchitra, AR Bitla, PV Srinivasa Rao, V Sivakumar
May-June 2012, 22(3):200-205
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98758  PMID:23087556
Patients with chronic renal failure, especially those on long-term hemodialysis (HD), have a high incidence of premature cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress, which occurs when there is an excessive free radical production or low antioxidant level, has recently been implicated as a causative factor in atherogenesis. Hourly changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, lipid profile and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were studied with the first use and immediate subsequent reuse of polysulfone dialysis membrane in 27 patients on regular HD treatment. Data were corrected for hemoconcentration and standardized to measure the rate of change. Increase in MDA and erythrocyte catalase along with decrease in plasma vitamin E and FRAP levels and no change in glutathione peroxidase levels were observed as a result of both fresh and reuse dialysis. These findings indicate a net oxidative stress in both fresh as well as dialyzer reuse sessions. There was no significant change in oxidative stress in both fresh and reuse sessions. The oxidative stress with reuse dialysis was less when compared to first use dialysis, but the difference was not statistically significant.
  1 2,093 124
CASE REPORTS
Non-nephronal hematuria misdiagnosed as C1q nephropathy: Look before you leap
SN Mandal, R Jha, R Fatima, G Swarnalata
May-June 2012, 22(3):206-209
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98761  PMID:23087557
A 19-year-old male presented with persistent macroscopic hematuria for last 3 months. On initial evaluation, he was found to have minimal proteinuria, normal renal function, and normal complement with negative lupus serology. Light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy of renal tissue confirmed the presence of C1q nephropathy. Because of poor response to immunosuppressive agent (prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil), passage of urinary clot once and vexing persistent macroscopic hematuria, alternative diagnosis was considered. Cystourethroscopy showed urethritis of prostatic urethra. Immunosuppressives were stopped and doxycycline started to which hematuria responded dramatically. This case report illustrates that hematuria in this patient was because of undiagnosed urethritis rather than incidental C1q nephropathy.
  - 2,208 91
Baclofen-induced encephalopathy in patient with end stage renal disease: Two case reports
SS Beladi Mousavi, M Beladi Mousavi, F Motemednia
May-June 2012, 22(3):210-212
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98762  PMID:23087558
We report two end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, who rapidly developed neurotoxicity after taking baclofen, a centrally acting gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist. They presented to our hospital in a state of confusion. On physical examination, there were no focal neurological deficits and the remainder of the examination was also not diagnostic. Laboratory data were unremarkable. The consciousness improved with supportive treatment and intensive hemodialysis over 3-4 days. In conclusion, physicians should be aware of the possibility of baclofen-induced neurotoxicity in patients with renal disease, especially in ESRD patients and it is necessary to avoid or reduce baclofen dosage in these patients.
  - 2,390 89
Diffuse mesangial sclerosis Report of two cases
M Vankalakunti, PK Jha, RM Madraki, V Siddini, K Babu, SH Ballal
May-June 2012, 22(3):213-216
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98764  PMID:23087559
Diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) is a rare cause of nephrotic syndrome in the infantile and childhood period. DMS is a phenotypic expression of syndromic entities such as WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies and mental retardation), Denys Drash syndrome, Pierson syndrome, Frasier syndrome, or Galloway-Mowat syndrome. We report two cases of DMS, one presenting in first year of life and another in second decade of life. Both of them had fatal outcome. Recognition of the disease is very important in modifying the management of patient and active surveillance of family members.
  - 2,740 117
Rapidly progressive renal failure due to chronic lymphocytic leukemia - Response to chlorambucil
NA Junglee, S Shrikanth, JR Seale
May-June 2012, 22(3):217-220
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98766  PMID:23087560
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia tends to follow an indolent course and despite infiltration of leukemic cells in numerous organs, resultant target organ damage is uncommon. We present a case of an 83-year-old Caucasian lady who presented with rapidly worsening renal impairment over a several month period with a serum creatinine peak of 2.82 mg/dl. Despite numerous investigations an immediate cause was not apparent. A renal biopsy was therefore conducted which revealed dense infiltration of the interstitium with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Given her age and frailty she was treated with single alkylating agent chemotherapy (chlorambucil). This resulted in a marked decrease in lymphocyte count and resolution of renal impairment close to her previous baseline level. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature to demonstrate a marked resolution in renal impairment with chlorambucil alone. We also highlight the value of renal biopsy in identifying a rare cause of renal impairment.
  - 2,961 83
Perinephric abscess with extension into mediastinum and epidural space
G Sivarama Krishna, B Vijayalakshmidevi, AY Lakshmi, B Mutheswaraiah, V Sivakumar
May-June 2012, 22(3):224-225
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98770  PMID:23087562
Perinephric abscess is accumulation of pus in the space between the renal capsule and the Geroto's fascia. The pus that accumulates in the perinephric space, may extend in several directions. Extension into the the mediastinum and spinal epidural space is unusual. Such situation is presented in this report.
  - 2,185 76
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY
Complete aortoiliac thrombosis in a patient during pretransplant cardiovascular evaluation
M Mesquita, A Demulder, A Nazeri, P Bergmann
May-June 2012, 22(3):226-227
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98773  PMID:23087563
  - 1,429 55
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Author's reply
V Jha
May-June 2012, 22(3):229-230
  - 1,195 48
Percutaneous PD catheter insertion after past abdominal surgeries
S Varughese, M Sundaram, G Basu, VG David, A Mohapatra, S Alexander, V Tamilarasi
May-June 2012, 22(3):230-231
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98785  PMID:23087566
  - 1,360 69
Authors reply on "Percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance"
R Karim, S Sengupta, S Samanta, RK Aich, U Das, P Deb
May-June 2012, 22(3):231-231
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98788  PMID:23087567
  - 1,219 55
Collapsing glomerulopathy: The Indian scenario
KP Malhotra, S Sharma
May-June 2012, 22(3):231-232
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98790  PMID:23087568
  - 1,148 72
Authors' reply
P Kulkarni, MS Uppin, AK Prayaga, U Das, KV Dakshinamurthy
May-June 2012, 22(3):234-235
  - 1,097 36
Feasibility of screening for urinary abnormalities as a part of school health appraisal
A Iyengar, BR Goud, N Kamath, KD Phadke, A Kasthuri
May-June 2012, 22(3):235-236
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98807  PMID:23087572
  - 1,710 74
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Risk prediction of acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery and prevention using aminophylline
AR Mahaldar, K Sampathkumar, AR Raghuram, S Kumar, M Ramakrishnan, D. A. C Mahaldar
May-June 2012, 22(3):179-183
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98752  PMID:23087551
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery remains high. The nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline has been shown to confer benefit in experimental and clinical acute renal failure (ARF) due to ischemia, contrast media, and various nephrotoxic agents. We conducted a prospective open label trial to assess the effectiveness of aminophylline for prevention of renal impairment after cardiac surgery. One hundred and thirty-eight patients undergoing cardiac surgery were risk stratified as per Cleveland score to assess for prediction of AKI. Sixty-three patients received a bolus aminophylline of 5 mg/kg and a subsequent continuous infusion of 0.25 mg/kg/h for up to 72 h, while 75 patients received usual postoperative care. Serum creatinine concentrations were measured preoperatively and daily until day 5 after surgery and the glomerular filtration rate estimated using Cockcroft and Gault formula. Hourly urine output was recorded and patients assigned to respective RIFLE stage of AKI. Cleveland score ≥6 was associated with higher incidence of AKI: I and F (P>0.005). Number needed to treat, an insight into the clinical relevance of a specific treatment, is 8. These results suggest that the perioperative use of aminophylline infusion is associated with lower incidence of deterioration in renal function following cardiac surgery in high-risk patients.
  - 2,626 136
Plasma cell-rich acute rejection of the renal allograft: A distinctive morphologic form of acute rejection?
R Gupta, A Sharma, PJ Mahanta, SK Agarwal, AK Dinda
May-June 2012, 22(3):184-188
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.98753  PMID:23087552
This study was aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic features of plasma cell-rich acute rejection (PCAR) of renal allograft and comparing them with acute cellular rejection (ACR), non-plasma cell-rich type. During a 2-year period, eight renal allograft biopsies were diagnosed as PCAR (plasma cells >10% of interstitial infiltrate). For comparison, 14 biopsies with ACR were included in the study. Detailed pretransplant data, serum creatinine at presentation, and other clinical features of all these cases were noted. Renal biopsy slides were reviewed and relevant immunohistochemistry performed for characterization of plasma cell infiltrate. The age range and duration of transplantation to diagnosis of acute rejection were comparable in both the groups. Histologically, the proportion of interstitial plasma cells, mean interstitial inflammation, and tubulitis score were higher in the PCAR group compared with cases with ACR. A significant difference was found in the outcome at last follow-up, being worse in patients with PCAR. This study shows that PCAR portends a poor outcome compared with ACR, with comparable Banff grade of rejection. Due to its rarity and recent description, nephrologists and renal pathologists need to be aware of this entity.
  - 2,729 121
Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07