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   2015| May-June  | Volume 25 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 13, 2015

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Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in India - Where are we heading?
PP Varma
May-June 2015, 25(3):133-135
  3,968 496 -
Oral prostacycline analog and clopidogrel combination provides early maturation and long-term survival after arteriovenous fistula creation: A randomized controlled study
AF Abacilar, H Atalay, OF Dogan
May-June 2015, 25(3):136-142
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.139490  PMID:26060361
Vascular access is used as a lifeline for hemodialysis in patients with end stage renal disease failure (ESRD). Failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is still high. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of clopidogrel in combination with oral iloprost, a synthetic analog of prostacyclin PGI 2. Ninety-six diabetic ESRD patients were divided into two groups. In the first group (Group 1, N = 50), clopidogrel (75 mg daily dose) and an oral prostacycline analog (200 mg daily dose) were administered. In the second group (Group 2, N = 46), placebo was given. All patients took study medication 7-10 days prior to surgery. A Doppler ultrasound (USG) was performed for measurement of arterial and venous diameters, and peak systolic velocity of arterial flow based on subsequent fistula adequacy. Autogenous AVFs were constructed in forearm as distally as possible in all patients. Both groups were followed-up for a year. In the placebo group, early AVF thrombosis was detected in two patients (4.3%). AVF maturation failure was noted in 14 patients (30.4%) in placebo group and in four patients (8%) in clopidogrel plus oral prostacycline analog group in the early postoperative period (P = 0.001). The mean maturation time was 38 ± 6.5 and 53 ± 12.8 days in study and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.023). The mean blood flow was 352 ± 94 mL/min in placebo group and 604 ± 125 mL/min in study group (P = 0.001). The arterial end diastolic velocity was 116 ± 14 cm/s in study group and 72 ± 21 cm/s in placebo group (P = 0.036) 1 year after the surgery. Our data indicated that clopidogrel and oral prostacycline analog combination is effective and safe for the prevention of primary AVF failure in hemodialysis patients and decreased acute and chronic thrombotic events.
  2,614 188 -
Terry's nails
BS Lakshmi, R Ram, VS Kumar
May-June 2015, 25(3):184-184
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.146030  PMID:26060372
  2,636 135 -
Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka
E. A. R. I. E. Siriwardhana, P. A. J. Perera, R Sivakanesan, T Abeysekara, DB Nugegoda, J. A. A. S. Jayaweera
May-June 2015, 25(3):146-151
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.140712  PMID:26060363
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of <3 L of water per day, and having a history of malaria were found to be having significant (P < 0.05) likelihood toward the development of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.
  2,609 148 -
Gloriosa superba ingestion: Hair loss and acute renal failure
PS Khanam, B Sangeetha, BV Kumar, U Kiran, PI Priyadarshini, R Ram, MS Sridhar, VS Kumar
May-June 2015, 25(3):174-176
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.145423  PMID:26060369
Gloriosa superba is a plant that grows wild in several parts of South India. Tubers of this plant contain several alkaloids. Acute intoxication following the ingestion of G. superba results in gastrointestinal and haematological abnormalities, hepatic and renal insufficiency, cardiotoxicity and hair loss. We present a case with typical features of G superba toxicity.
  2,550 92 -
Percutaneous native kidney biopsy in patients receiving antiplatelet agents- is it necessary to stop them routinely?
S Nayak-Rao
May-June 2015, 25(3):129-132
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.147374  PMID:26060359
Percutaneous renal biopsy plays an important role in the investigational approach of the nephrologist. Though the technique and the safety of the procedure has improved over the last two decades it remains an invasive procedure and can be associated with bleeding complications. To minimize the risk of bleeding, it has been the practice of many centers and nephrologists to advise patients receiving antiplatelet agents to discontinue them 5-7 days before planned procedure. This advice is based on opinion and pre-established procedure or norms rather than sound evidence based guidelines. This article aims to be a critical appraisal of this unnecessary and sometimes not so safe practice of routine stoppage of antiplatelet agents prior to kidney biopsy.
  2,331 281 -
Membranous nephropathy as a rare renal manifestation of IgG4-related disease
AA Kurien, A Raychaudhury, PD Walker
May-June 2015, 25(3):164-167
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.143300  PMID:26060366
IgG4-related disease, a newly described immune-mediated disorder with tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, has been reported in nearly every organ. In the kidney, it manifests as IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) but may also present as membranous nephropathy. We report a patient with IgG4 renal disease who had membranous nephropathy as well as TIN.
  2,370 108 -
Cystatin C: An alternative dialysis adequacy marker in high flux hemodialysis
KU Maheshwari, S Santhi, RJ Malar
May-June 2015, 25(3):143-145
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.139489  PMID:26060362
The conventional, low flux (LF) dialyzer allows the removal of small molecular solutes like urea and creatinine. High flux (HF) dialyzers allow the effective removal of middle molecules (MM) as well, and are associated with reduced hemodialysis-related morbidity and mortality. Cystatin C has attractive characteristics as a representative MM. The aim of this study was to determine cystatin C reduction ratio (CysCRR) in both LF and HF groups and to compare it with other markers of dialysis adequacy. Thirty-seven patients were subjected to both LF and HF hemodialysis 2 weeks apart. Serum urea, creatinine and cystatin C were measured pre- and post-dialysis. Cystatin C was measured by latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetry. Urea and creatinine reduction ratios were 72.3 ± 14.7% and 62.5 ± 13%, respectively in the LF group. The CysCRR was −9.7 ± 6.7% and 29.2 ± 11% in LF and HF hemodialysis, respectively. The statistically significant decrease in CysCRR in the HF group shows the effective clearance of MM by HF dialyzers. Hence, CysCRR could be applied to measure the MM clearance in HF hemodialysis. This study highlights the significance of cystatin C as an important dialysis adequacy marker replacing the conventional markers such as urea and creatinine in HF hemodialysis. Among the middle molecules cystatin C scores over beta-2 microglobulin.
  2,270 179 -
Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population
CG Okwuonu, II Chukwuonye, SO Ogah, C Abali, OA Adejumo, E Oviasu
May-June 2015, 25(3):158-163
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.139096  PMID:26060365
The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher - administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18-78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria.
  2,183 101 -
Immunoglobulin A dominant membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in an elderly man: A case report and review of the literature
V Agrawal, A Kaul, RS Ranade, RK Sharma
May-June 2015, 25(3):168-170
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.145425  PMID:26060367
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) dominant membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is rare, described only as case reports. We report a rare case of an elderly man presenting with rapidly progressive renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria with histological, immunofluorescence, and ultrastructural findings supporting a diagnosis of IgA dominant MPGN. Autoimmune disease, cryoglobulinemia and infection-associated glomerulonephritis were excluded. Remission was achieved within 3 months of treatment. This case highlights an uncommon diagnosis with a good response to therapy. The differential diagnosis of IgA nephropathy with MPGN-like pattern is discussed.
  2,161 119 -
Liver biopsy in patients on hemodialysis with hepatitis C virus infection: An important tool
SK Agarwal, S Datta Gupta
May-June 2015, 25(3):152-157
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.139097  PMID:26060364
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is commonest blood borne infection amongst hemodialysis patients. Still, there is paucity of data on liver biopsy in these patients. Our center is doing regular liver biopsy in these patients and thus thought of sharing our experience. In this retrospective study, all patients with HCV infection on hemodialysis were subjected to liver biopsy. Serum bilirubin, liver enzyme, HCV-PCR, genotype and viral load measurement were done in all. Biopsy specimen was stained with H and E, Periodic Acid Schiff, Gomori Stain, Masson Trichrome and Perls Stain. International Working Group scoring system of Ishak et al. was used for Grading and Staging. Of the 270 liver biopsies, mean age of patients was 34.05 ΁ 10.28 years and 233 (85.3%) were males. Mean duration of hemodialysis was 10.9 ΁ 7.4 months while of known HCV infection was 5.2 ΁ 4.0 months. Genotype 3 was commonest followed by 1. All had normal bilirubin and 64 (23.1%) had normal ALT. In 37 (13.3%) patients anti-HCV was not detectable. Mean histology grade was 4.03 ΁ 1.65 (1-10) and stage was 0.75 ΁ 0.98 (0-3). Only one patient had cirrhosis on histology. Associated hemosiderosis was seen 10 patients. Only minor complications were observed with no mortality. In conclusion, our study shows that in one-fourth patients with active liver disease, liver enzymes are persistently normal in patients on hemodialysis. Further, carefully performed liver biopsy is reasonably safe procedure though some patients do have non-fatal complications. Liver biopsy helps in assessing disease activity, which otherwise cannot be assessed. Histological grade and stage in these patients is usually mild and cirrhosis is rare. Till such time other non-invasive test is validated, liver biopsy will remain an important test in these patients.
  1,931 123 -
Primary hyperparathyroidism in a child
A Anitha, K Babu, V Siddini, HS Ballal
May-June 2015, 25(3):171-173
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.147375  PMID:26060368
Primary hyperparathyroidism is rare in children. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with recurrent renal calculi, muscular weakness and inability to walk; was diagnosed to have parathyroid adenoma and underwent parathyroidectomy.
  1,830 100 -
Adefovir nephrotoxicity in a renal allograft recipient
N George, G Basu, A Mohapatra, U Zachariah, P Abraham, A Korula, S Varughese, CK Jacob, V Tamilarasi
May-June 2015, 25(3):180-183
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.144423  PMID:26060371
Adefovir dipivoxil, an oral prodrug of adefovir, is used in the treatment of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nephrotoxicity manifesting as proximal renal tubular dysfunction and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) were commonly reported in the past, when higher doses were used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, nephrotoxicity is rare at lower doses that are currently recommended for the treatment of HBV infection. A 31-year-old female was detected to be hepatitis B surface antigen positive months after a kidney transplant. The patient was initiated on lamivudine, but developed resistance after 1 year of treatment, at which time low-dose adefovir was added. The patient developed renal allograft dysfunction after 10 months of starting adefovir. Serum creatinine increased from 1.1 mg/dl to 1.9 mg/dl, along with progressively increasing sub-nephrotic proteinuria. Renal allograft biopsy revealed features of ATN. After discontinuation of adefovir, proteinuria resolved and renal dysfunction improved slowly over the next 2 years. Adefovir-induced nephrotoxicity, although uncommon at lower doses, needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal dysfunction and sub-nephrotic proteinuria occurring in patients receiving adefovir for prolonged periods.
  1,804 84 -
Successful catheter reinsertion in a case of Paecilomyces varioti peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
SB Mandarapu, KK Mukku, SB Raju, S Chandragiri
May-June 2015, 25(3):177-179
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.147377  PMID:26060370
Peritonitis is one of the most common and important complications in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Fungal peritonitis isreported in 4-8% of peritonitis episodes. Fungal peritonitis due to Paecilomyces species is not common. We report a case of CAPD peritonitis due to P. varioti. We immediately removed the CAPD catheter and IV amphotericin was administered for 4 weeks along with temporary hemodialytic support followed by successful catheter reinsertion.
  1,722 64 -
Glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits
K Gandhi, D Prasad, V Malhotra, P Beniwal
May-June 2015, 25(3):187-188
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.153327  PMID:26060375
  1,376 81 -
Effect of improved periodontal health in renal recipients
R Joseph, SK Anandan, S Melemadathil
May-June 2015, 25(3):186-187
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.153333  PMID:26060374
  1,334 52 -
Allograft and remnant kidneys display a difference in size 5 years after transplantation
C Ackoundou-N'Guessan, C Monlet Guei, A Pessa Coulibaly
May-June 2015, 25(3):185-186
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.153330  PMID:26060373
  1,238 61 -
Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07