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   2021| September-October  | Volume 31 | Issue 5  
    Online since October 16, 2021

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HLA desensitization based on results of the luminex technique in kidney transplant – A single-center experience
SB Bansal, A Gade, S Sinha, A Mahapatra, P Jha, SK Sethi
September-October 2021, 31(5):454-459
Background: There is little experience of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization in India based on the Luminex single-antigen bead (SAB) testing. We retrospectively analyzed our patients, who underwent HLA desensitization based on Luminex SAB results. Method: Between 2014 and 2018, patients with complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match (CDC-XM) negativity but flow cytometry crossmatch (FC-XM) positivity were further analyzed with Luminex SAB for donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). A total of 12 patients who had DSA mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of >1000 and <10,000 were included in the study. Our protocol for desensitization consisted of plasmapheresis (PP) followed by low dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IV IG) 100 mg/kg and induction with antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Patients were taken for transplant when either MFI was <1000 and/or FC-XM was negative. Results: All 12 patients were first transplant and 10 had a history of some sensitizing event; pregnancy in 4, blood transfusions in 4, and both in 2 patients. FC-XM was positive for T-cell in 4, B-cell in 6, and both in 2 patients. On evaluation by Luminex SAB, 6 patients had MFI from 1000 to 2000, and 6 had MFI of >2000. All underwent desensitization successfully. Two patients had an increase in posttransplant DSA titers requiring posttransplant PP. The mean follow-up was 26.6 ± 13.9 months. On follow-up, only one patient developed acute T cell-mediated rejection 1 year after transplant, which responded to pulse steroids. There was no graft or patient loss until the last follow-up. Conclusion: This study shows that HLA desensitization is feasible and successful in the Indian setting if patients are properly selected.
  3,063 233 -
Clinical profile and outcome of hemodialysis patients with SARS COV2 infection in a tertiary care centre in Mumbai, India
Smriti Sinha, Rudramani Swami, Ahmad Shakir, Sayed Salman Ali, Jyoti Bansode, Kalpana Mehta
September-October 2021, 31(5):442-448
Introduction: CKD5D is a high risk subgroup with high comorbidity burden, need for frequent visits to dialysis centre and a compromised immune system. The effect of SARS COV2 virus on this population is not well known. Methods: This prospective study enrolled, all CKD5D with COVID 19 infection, admitted to our hospital, from 23rd April to 30th June 2020 & whose outcome as discharge/mortality was known. Their clinical profile, investigations, treatment and outcome in terms of mortality or discharge after clearing infection was noted and analysed. Results: Total 203 dialysis patients with COVID 19 were referred to our institute. Of these total, 131 were analysed. Median age was 50 years (19-80 years) with 57% were males. Hypertension (76%) was the commonest comorbidity followed by diabetes (29%) and coronary artery disease (22%). Dyspnoea, fever and cough were present in 50%, 40%, and 33% patients respectively. 26% were asymptomatic. None had dialyser clotting. Mortality was 20.6%. Time to turn RT PCR negative was 14 days (3-40 days). Comparing deceased vs survivors: Age [56 vs 49 yrs], diabetes [56% vs 22%], duration of symptoms at admission [5 vs 4 days], dyspnea [85% vs 40%] and encephalopathy [30% vs 1%] at admission, bilateral opacities on Chest X ray [93% vs 20%] and high leucocyte count [11,059 ± 5,929 vs 7,022 ± 2,935/cmm] were statistically significant variables associated with mortality. Conclusion: Asymptomatic group was 26% of the total CKD5D with COVID 19 infection population analysed. Mortality was 20.61%. Higher age, later presentation to hospital, diabetes, dyspnoea, & encephalopathy at presentation, bilateral opacities on Chest X- Ray & higher leukocyte counts were significantly associated with mortality.
  2,910 219 2
A study of Factors Affecting Dialysis Recovery Time in Haemodialysis Patients in India
S V R Bipin Kumar, B Karthikeyan, Sanjeev Velayudhan Nair, Ashok Ramasamy, Shalman Khan, Soundararajan Periasamy
September-October 2021, 31(5):460-466
Background: Patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) often complain of fatigue and tiredness following haemodialysis sessions leading to poor compliance with the dialysis schedule. There is limited Indian data on dialysis recovery time (DRT). The present study was designed to assess the factors affecting DRT in our haemodialysis population. Methods: We recorded self-reported patient recovery times of 120 patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria, over three consecutive dialysis sessions by asking the question, 'How long does it take to recover from a dialysis session'? Data recorded included patient factors like age, sex, co-morbidities, Charlson comorbidity index score (CCI), dialysis vintage, duration of kidney disease, interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), treatment factors like ultrafiltration rate (UFR), SpKt/V, blood pump speed, dialysate sodium, session length, pre and post HD blood pressure and laboratory parameters. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the KDQOL-SF v. 1.3 questionnaire. Results from the SF-36 score were summarised into the physical composite score (PCS), mental composite score (MCS) and kidney disease composite score (KDCS). Results: The mean age of the study population was 50.6 ± 12.6 years. Among the 120 patients, 77 (64.2%) were males. Thirty-nine patients (32.5%) were diabetic and 95 (79.1%) patients were hypertensive. The mean dialysis vintage of the study population was 26.1 ± 18.6 months, 41 (34.2%) patients reported DRT <2 h; 48 (40%) reported DRT between 2–6 h and 31 (25.8%) reported DRT >6 h. On multivariate regression analysis, higher IDWG, CCI score and UFR were associated with prolonged DRT. Reported DRT also inversely correlated with PCS (r = - 0.66), MCS (r = - 0.65) and KDCS (r = - 0.59) scores which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed that higher CCI scores, IDWG and UFR were associated with prolonged DRT in Indian haemodialysis patients and patients with longer recovery time had poor HRQoL. Interventions to reduce DRT need to be assessed in further trials in Indian MHD patients.
  2,885 217 2
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis guidelines – Consensus statement of peritoneal dialysis society of India - 2020
Tarun K Jeloka, Georgi Abraham, AK Bhalla, J Balasubramaniam, A Dutta, Gokulnath , Amit Gupta, V Jha, Umesh Khanna, Sandeep Mahajan, KS Nayak, KN Prasad, Narayan Prasad, Manish Rathi, Sreebhushan Raju, Anusha Rohit, Manisha Sahay, K Sampathkumar, V Sivakumar, Santosh Varughese
September-October 2021, 31(5):425-434
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) related peritonitis is a major cause of technique failure, morbidity, and mortality in patients on CAPD. Its prevention and management is key to success of CAPD program. Due to variability in practice, microbiological trends and sensitivity towards antibiotics, there is a need for customized guidelines for management of CAPD related peritonitis (CAPDRP) in India. With this need, Peritoneal Dialysis Society of India (PDSI) organized a structured meeting to discuss various aspects of management of CAPDRP and formulated a consensus agreement which will help in management of patients with CAPDRP.
  2,672 320 1
Uncommon presentation of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: A Case Report
Sandra M Martin, Alejandro Balestracci, Iris Puyol, Ismael Toledo, Gabriel Cao, Gema Arizeta
September-October 2021, 31(5):478-481
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an ultra-rare disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal damage. Its presentation as nephrotic syndrome (NS) during first year of life is uncommon; we describe a child with clinical and laboratory findings of NS whose renal biopsy revealed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). A previously healthy 4-month-old male was admitted with severe dehydration, diarrhea and anuria. Laboratory results showed electrolyte disturbances, increased serum creatinine, anemia without schistocytes, thrombocytosis, normal lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, hypoalbuminemia hypercholesterolemia and decreased C3 levels. After rehydration hematuria and massive proteinuria were also documented and an initial diagnosis of NS of the first year was established. Studies seeking for infectious agents were negative. During hospitalization he continued to be oligo-anuric needing dialysis and a renal biopsy was performed, which showed TMA findings. We here considered the diagnosis of aHUS and started plasma infusions as a bridge until starting eculizumab. After two infusions urine output improved leading to discontinuation dialysis. The diagnoses of STEC infection and thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura were ruled out. Factor B, H, I and properdin levels were normal. Antibodies against CFH negative were negative. Screening for genes causative of aHUS detected a heterozygous variant in CFHR3 of uncertain significance. On day 20, treatment was switched to eculizumab, which induced a progressive remission of the NS. This case outlines the need for a heightened diagnosis suspicion of this already rare disease since early initiation of eculizumab therapy improves its prognosis.
  2,726 172 -
A rare case of type 4 rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (atypical) with mesangial IgA deposits: A case report
Puneet Bhuwania, Ilangovan Veerappan, Ramaswami Sethuraman
September-October 2021, 31(5):488-491
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis can result from glomerular deposition of anti-GBM antibody, immune complexes, or may involve pauci-immune mechanisms. The coexistence of IgA nephropathy, anti-GBM, and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies is unheard of, and the pathogenic role of these antibodies in IgA nephropathy or vice versa remains unclear. Herein, we describe a case of a patient with type 4 rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis who was found to have significant mesangial IgA deposits. The prognosis of this remains unclear but our patient responded well to cytotoxic therapy and plasmapheresis and achieved remission by 6 months. The findings suggest an overlap syndrome of IgA nephropathy-associated type 4 crescentic glomerulonephritis that resembles the former histologically and the latter in its potential to respond to aggressive therapy if detected relatively early in its course.
  2,260 98 -
IgA nephropathy with wilson's disease: A case report and literature review
Gaurav Bhandari, Vaibhav Tiwari, Anurag Gupta, Pallav Gupta, Vinant Bhargava, Manish Malik, Ashwani Gupta, Anil K Bhalla, Devinder S Rana
September-October 2021, 31(5):474-477
The most common glomerulonephritis seen in the world is immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). It can be primary or secondary associated with various conditions like Chronic Liver disease, Crohn's disease, neoplasms, etc. However, IgAN secondary to Wilson's disease is very rare. A 9 year old boy presented with gross hematuria and proteinuria. He had a history of recurrent jaundice in the past. Ultrasonography (USG) whole abdomen showed altered echotexture of the liver with normal-sized kidneys. An extended workup for liver disease was done, and the diagnosis of Wilson's disease was confirmed with decreased serum ceruloplasmin levels, increased urinary copper, and the Kayser–Fleischer ring. Urine routine microscopy showed numerous red blood cells, few red blood cell casts, and mild proteinuria. Renal biopsy showed IgAN. The patient was started on D-penicillamine. On follow-up at 3 months, he showed complete resolution of proteinuria and hematuria. Thus, we suggest that Wilson's disease should be considered as one of the causes of secondary IgAN in pediatric patients with hematuria, proteinuria with liver dysfunction.
  2,158 163 2
Colistin nephrotoxicity-age and baseline kidney functions hold the key
Bipi K Prasannan, Faiz C Mukthar, V Narayanan Unni, Shilpa Mohan, K Vinodkumar
September-October 2021, 31(5):449-453
Introduction: With the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections, there has been a surge in the use of Colistin in recent times. The most important side effect of Colistin use is its nephrotoxicity. The study was designed to assess the effect on kidney function and the risk factors for nephrotoxicity in patients treated with Colistin. Methods: The study is a retrospective one, which included patients who received Colistin for more than 48 hours. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) four-variable equation and acute kidney injury (AKI) was diagnosed as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) criteria. Results: Of the 150 patients studied, 59 patients (39.2%) developed AKI within a median period of 4 days (Range 2–20 days) of initiation of Colistin. Age, eGFR at the start of therapy and requirement of vasopressor support for treatment of septic shock were the most important risk factors associated with nephrotoxicity. Among patients with AKI, nearly half had only mild worsening of renal functions to KDIGO AKI stage 1. Nearly 75% of patients with AKI had complete or partial recovery of renal functions after stopping Colistin. Conclusion: Colistin has significant nephrotoxicity, the risk being higher with older age and baseline renal dysfunction. It is important to monitor renal functions early and at regular intervals after initiating therapy.
  1,965 193 -
Characteristics and outcome of biopsy-proven malignant hypertension with severe kidney injury: A retrospective study
Satish Haridasan, PS Priyamvada, Dhanin Puthiyottil, Arjun Pradeep, Sreejith Parameswaran, BH Srinivas, Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh
September-October 2021, 31(5):467-473
Background: Although malignant hypertension begets multiple target organ damage, there is limited data on patients with severe renal injury and evident malignant hypertension in renal histopathology. Methods: We assessed the baseline demographic, histopathological findings and clinical outcomes in this retrospective analysis of patients with biopsy-proven malignant hypertension. Results: Thirty cases were analysed, the mean age of patients was 40 ± 11.5 years, 28 (93.3%) were males and the average systolic and diastolic blood pressures at hospitalisation were 197.04 ± 24.14 and 117.41 ± 18.31 mmHg, respectively. Severe retinopathy was seen in 10 (33.3%). The median eGFR at admission was 6.3 (IQR 4.4–9.15) mL/min and 21 (72.4%) needed dialysis. Nine (30%) cases with glomerular crescents were having the primary glomerular disease (7 IgAN, 1 C3 glomerulonephritis, 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) and 17 (56.6%) had thrombotic microangiopathy. Three-month ESRD free survival was 34.5% (n = 10) and the ESRD cohort had more incidence of dialysis requiring kidney injury at presentation (94.4% vs. 40% in the non-ESRD cohort). Patient survival at 1 year was 50%. Isolated malignant hypertension, differed from others with regard to lesser incidence of severe retinopathy, less glomerular sclerosis (29.61 ± 15.86 vs. 48.45% ± 30.78; P = 0.03), absence of crescents (P = 0.02), more incidence of tuft wrinkling (100% vs. 35%, P = 0.00) and total vessel occlusion (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Clinicopathologically, accelerated essential hypertension differs from hypertension of glomerular disease. Degree of kidney injury at presentation is risk predictor for long-term morbidity in malignant hypertension.
  1,961 162 -
Bacteraemia by Achromobacter denitrificans in Hemodialysis
Venice Chavez-Valencia, Omar Aguilar-Bixano, Citlalli Orizaga-de-la-Cruz, Francisco Alejandro Lagunas-Rangel
September-October 2021, 31(5):500-501
  1,955 114 -
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and ulcerative colitis – A potential link revisited
Lovy Gaur, Garima Aggarwal, Subhasish Mazumder, Anita Khanna, Manoj K Singhal
September-October 2021, 31(5):492-494
Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be associated with several extraintestinal manifestations including haematological abnormalities. The association between ulcerative colitis and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is largely anecdotal, described in only two case reports so far. While the existence of association remains a matter of research, what is clear is the need for prompt recognition of this complication and expedient treatment which may be life-saving. Here, we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
  1,946 119 -
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on nephrology training in an academic center in India: Looking forward through online teaching
Joyita Bharati, Harbir Singh Kohli
September-October 2021, 31(5):495-497
  1,710 102 -
Chylous ascites after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: Case report
Gaurav Bhandari, Vaibhav Tiwari, Anurag Gupta, Vinant Bhargava, Manish Malik, Ashwani Gupta, Anil Kumar Bhalla, DS Rana
September-October 2021, 31(5):482-484
Chylous ascites refers to the accumulation of chyle in the abdominal cavity. Postoperative chylous ascites is most commonly associated with abdominal aortic surgeries. However, it is a rare complication following laparoscopic nephrectomy. It causes loss of fat, protein, and antibodies causing malnutrition and immunodeficiency. Thus, it is important to treat it as early as possible. We hereby report a case of chylous ascites following laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. A 55-year-old female was admitted at our center 2 weeks after undergoing left laparoscopic donor nephrectomy with abdominal distension and constipation. USG abdomen revealed free fluid in the abdomen. Paracentesis revealed chylous ascites. The patient was started on conservative treatment, including a diet rich in proteins and low in fats; conservative treatment, however, was unsuccessful. Lymphangiography and subsequent embolization of the defect were done, and she made a full recovery.
  1,669 79 -
Retrospective diagnosis of nail-patella syndrome
Zaheer A Virani, Prashant Rajput, Hepal Vora, Bharat V Shah
September-October 2021, 31(5):485-487
A 37 years old female presented with asymptomatic nephrotic range proteinuria due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). She was treated with steroids and mycophenolate mofetil to which there was no response and progressed to advanced chronic kidney disease. When her brother who was being evaluated as a potential donor, for renal transplant, was found to have proteinuria and a genetic study for the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome was done. This revealed mutation in the LMX1B gene. It is then that a diagnosis of nail-patella syndrome (NPS) was made. She underwent a successful renal transplant with her father as a donor and is doing well.
  1,578 135 1
Perioperative acute myocardial infarction in the first deceased kidney transplantation done in Bihar
Chandan Kumar, Prit P Singh, Amresh Krishna, Om Kumar
September-October 2021, 31(5):498-499
  1,492 87 -
Fenofibrate prevents nicotine-induced acute kidney injury: Possible involvement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase
Vishal Arvind Chakkarwar, Pravin Kawtikwar
September-October 2021, 31(5):435-441
Objective: The present study investigated the possible effect of fenofibrate (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α agonist) in nicotine-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. Materials and Methods: Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) was administered for 4 weeks to induce AKI in rats. Lipid profile and renal oxidative stress were measured and expression of mRNA for eNOS was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction along with serum and renal tissue nitrite levels. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and microproteinuria were estimated along with the kidney histology, as markers of kidney function. Treatment with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg per oral, 4 weeks) was initiated 3 days before the administration of nicotine and continued for 4 weeks from the day of administration of nicotine. Results: Nicotine administered rats developed apparent AKI confirmed by elevated markers of kidney function and noticeable glomerulosclerosis and tubular cell degeneration. Nicotine decreases the expression of mRNA for eNOS, along with serum and renal tissue nitrite levels. In addition, nicotine showed significantly lipid alteration beside decrease oxidative stress, assessed in terms of increase in serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and a marked decrease in tissue reduced glutathione. However, fenofibrate significantly prevented the development of nicotine-AKI by reducing serum creatinine, BUN, and urinary protein, normalizing the lipid profile, reducing renal oxidative stress, increases the eNOS expression and concentration of serum and renal nitrate levels. Conclusion: Fenofibrate attenuates nicotine-induced AKI, via its antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant property. Moreover, fenofibrate induced upregulation of eNOS expression additionally play key roles in the improvement of nicotine-induced AKI could be the future alternative.
  1,463 32 -
Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07